On the Ptolemy's map there are shown several settlements along the mid-stream of Borysthenes among of which is Azagarium. Some historians believe that it could be the old Kiev. Just south of Azagarium, there is another settlement of Amadoca, which supposedly was the capital of Amadoci people  living in area between marshes of Amadoca in the west and Amadoca mountains in the east.
Another name related Kiev mentioned in history, origin of which is not completely clear, is Sambat and has something to do with the Khazar Empire. As previously stated the Primary Chronicle mentions that residents of Kiev told Askold that "there were three brothers Kii, Shchek and Khoriv. They founded this town and died, and now we are staying and paying taxes to their relatives the Khazars".
In his book De Administrando Imperio Constantine Porphyrogenitus , mentioning the caravan of small-cargo boats assembled annually before the capital city on the Dnieper , writes, "They come down the river Dnieper and assemble at the strong-point of Kiev Kioava , also called Sambatas".
The texts of those authors were discovered by Russian orientalist Alexander Tumansky. The historian Julius Brutzkus in his work "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev" hypothesizes that both Sambat and Kiev are of Khazar origin meaning "hill fortress" and "lower settlement" respectively. The Primary Chronicles states that at some point during the late 9th or early 10th century in Kiev ruled Askold and Dir who may have been of Viking or Varangian descent and later were murdered by Oleg of Novgorod.
The Primary Chronicle dates the Oleg's conquest of the town in , but some historians, such as Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman , dispute that arguing that Khazar rule continued as late as the s among notable historical documents are Kievian Letter and Schechter Letter. Other historians suggest that Magyar tribes ruled the city between and , before migrating with some Khazar tribes to the Carpathian Basin.
The Primary Chronicles also mention movement of Hungarians pass Kiev. To this day in Kiev exists a place known as " Uhorske urochyshche " Hungarian place ,  which is better known as Askold's Grave.
The three names appear in the Kiev Chronicle Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv may be not of Slavic origin as Russian historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. The city of Kiev stood conveniently on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks.
In the nomadic Pechenegs attacked and then besieged the city. In the s the city was besieged and ravaged by different Rus' princes several times. The town had not recovered from Bogolyubsky's sack and the subsequent destruction, when in the Mongol invasion of Rus' , led by Batu Khan , completed the destruction of Kiev. Before Bogolyubsky's pillaging, Kiev had had a reputation as one of the largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding , in the beginning of the 12th century. The Tatars , who also claimed Kiev, retaliated in —, so while Kiev was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay tribute to the Golden Horde.
None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning Kiev have ever been ratified. Shevchenko worked as a field researcher and editor for the geography department.
The medical faculty of the Saint Vladimir University, separated into an independent institution in — during the Soviet period, became the Bogomolets National Medical University in During the 18th and 19th centuries the Russian military and ecclesiastical authorities dominated city life; [ citation needed ] the Russian Orthodox Church had involvement in a significant part of Kiev's infrastructure and commercial activity.
In the late s the historian, Mykola Kostomarov Russian: Nikolay Kostomarov , founded a secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saint Cyril and Methodius , whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic peoples with Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities quickly suppressed the society.
Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy, Kiev experienced growing Russification in the 19th century by means of Russian migration, administrative actions and social modernization.
At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian -speaking part of the population dominated the city centre, while the lower classes living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture to a significant extent. During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century, Kiev became an important trade and transportation centre of the Russian Empire , specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river.
By the city had also become a significant industrial centre, having a population of , Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous educational and cultural facilities as well as notable architectural monuments mostly merchant-oriented. In the first electric tram line of the Russian Empire started running in Kiev the 3rd in the world.
Kiev prospered during the late 19th century Industrial Revolution in the Russian Empire , when it became the third most important city of the Empire and the major centre of commerce of its southwest.
In the turbulent period following the Russian Revolution , Kiev became the capital of several successive Ukrainian states and was caught in the middle of several conflicts: World War I , during which German soldiers occupied it from 2 March to November , the Russian Civil War of to , and the Polish—Soviet War of — During the last three months of , Kiev was intermittently controlled by the White Army.
Kiev changed hands sixteen times from the end of to August From to the city formed part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic , which became a founding republic of the Soviet Union in The major events that took place in Soviet Ukraine during the interwar period all affected Kiev: the s Ukrainization as well as the migration of the rural Ukrainophone population made the Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and bolstered the development of Ukrainian cultural life in the city; the Soviet Industrialization that started in the late s turned the city, a former centre of commerce and religion, into a major industrial, technological and scientific centre; the — Great Famine devastated the part of the migrant population not registered for ration cards; and Joseph Stalin 's Great Purge of — almost eliminated the city's intelligentsia   .
In Kiev became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist today.
Axis forces killed or captured more than , Soviet soldiers in the great encirclement Battle of Kiev in Most of those captured never returned alive. Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local Jews they could find, nearly 34,,  and massacred them at Babi Yar in Kiev over the course of 29 to 30 September It is estimated [ by whom? Kiev recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again the third-most important city of the Soviet Union.
However, the prevailing northward winds blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kiev. In the course of the collapse of the Soviet Union the Ukrainian parliament proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine in the city on 24 August In —, the city played host to the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations up to that time, in support of the Orange Revolution.
From November until February , central Kiev became the primary location of Euromaidan. Geographically, Kiev is located on the border of the Polesia woodland ecological zone, a part of the European mixed woods area, and the East European forest steppe biome. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. Kiev is completely surrounded by Kiev Oblast.
Originally on the west bank, today Kiev is located on both sides of the Dnieper , which flows southwards through the city towards the Black Sea. The older and higher western part of the city sits on numerous wooded hills Kiev Hills , with ravines and small rivers. Kiev's geographical relief contributed to its toponyms , such as Podil means lower , Pechersk caves , and uzviz a steep street, "descent". Kiev is a part of the larger Dnieper Upland adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper in its mid-flow, and which contributes to the city's elevation change.
The northern outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland. Kiev expanded into the Dnieper Lowland on the left bank to the east as late as the 20th century. Significant areas of the left bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams. Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries , isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is close to the mouth of the Desna River and the Kiev Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir in the south.
Both the Dnieper and Desna rivers are navigable at Kiev, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over. In total, there are bodies of open water within the boundaries of Kiev, which include the Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds.
They occupy hectares. Additionally, the city has 16 developed beaches totalling hectares and 35 near-water recreational areas covering more than 1, hectares. Many are used for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are not suitable for swimming.
According to the UN evaluation, there were no risks of natural disasters in Kiev and its metropolitan area. The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was The municipality of the city of Kiev has a special legal status within Ukraine compared to the other administrative subdivisions of the country.
The most significant difference is that the city is considered as a region of Ukraine see Regions of Ukraine. It is the only city that has double jurisdiction.
Most key buildings of the national government are located along Hrushevskoho Street vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho and Institute Street vulytsia Instytutska. The city state administration and council is located in the Kiev City council building on Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state administration and council is located in the Kiev Oblast council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky Lesya Ukrayinka Square. The seat of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
The presidential administration building. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with its international relations, as well as extensive internet and social network penetration ,  have made Kiev the most pro-Western and pro-democracy region of Ukraine; so called National Democratic parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union receive most votes during elections in Kiev.
Historically located on the western right bank of the river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century. Most of Kiev's attractions as well as the majority of business and governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern 'Left Bank' is predominantly residential. There are large industrial and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank.
Kiev is further informally divided into historical or territorial neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5, to , inhabitants. The first known formal subdivision of Kiev dates to when the city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk , Starokyiv, and the first and the second parts of Podil.
In — according to Tsar Nicholas I 's decree, Kiev was subdivided into 6 police raions districts ; later being increased to During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions also gradually increased.
These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kiev's districts change accordingly.
The last raion reform took place in when the number of raions has been decreased from 14 to Under Oleksandr Omelchenko mayor from to , there were further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be decreased from 10 to 7.
With the election of the new mayor-elect Leonid Chernovetsky in , these plans were shelved. Each raion has its own locally elected government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs. According to the official registration statistics, there were 2,, residents within the city limits of Kiev in July According to the All-Ukrainian Census , the population of Kiev in was 2,, According to the census, some 1,, Comparing the results with the previous census shows the trend of population ageing which, while prevalent throughout the country, is partly offset in Kiev by the inflow of working age migrants.
Some 1,, people had higher or completed secondary education, a significant increase of The June unofficial population estimate based on amount of bakery products sold in the city thus including temporary visitors and commuters gave a number of at least 3. According to the census data, more than nationalities and ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kiev. Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic group in Kiev, and they account for 2,, people, or Russians comprise , Most of the city's non-Slav population comprises Tatars, Caucasians and other people from the former Soviet Union.
The Jews of Kiev are first mentioned in a 10th century letter , but the Jewish population remained relatively small until the nineteenth century. On the eve of World War I, the city's Jewish population was over 81,,  and by there were approximately , Jews in Kiev,  some of whom fled the city ahead of the German invasion of the Soviet Union that began in June Modern Kiev is a mix of the old Kiev preserved about 70 percent of more than 1, buildings built during —  and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people themselves.
When the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkiv to Kiev many new buildings were commissioned to give the city "the gloss and polish of a capital". As a result, Kiev's central districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments.
Urban sprawl has gradually reduced, while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi Raion or Obolon along the Dnieper.
Ukrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs , classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in ,  Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kiev, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities.
The centre of Kiev has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored and redecorated, especially Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Many historic areas of Kiev, such as Andriyivskyy Descent , have become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional Ukrainian art , religious items, books, game sets most commonly chess as well as jewellery for sale. Kiev's most famous historical architecture complexes are the St. Noteworthy historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace designed and constructed from to , then reconstructed in , several Orthodox churches such as St.
Michael's Cathedral , St. Andrew's , St. Vladimir's , the reconstructed Golden Gate and others. Among Kiev's best-known monuments are Mikhail Mikeshin 's statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his horse located near St.
Sophia Cathedral , the venerated Vladimir the Great St. Vladimir , the baptizer of Rus' , overlooking the river above Podil from Volodymyrska Hill , the monument to Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city located at the Dnieper embankment.
On Independence Square in the city centre, two monuments elevate two of the city protectors; the historic protector of Kiev Michael Archangel atop a reconstruction of one of the old city's gates and a modern invention, the goddess-protector Berehynia atop a tall column. Sophia Cathedral. Volodymyr's Cathedral. Things to Do. Travel Forums. Rental Cars. Vacation Packages. Kyiv Kiev Kyiv Kiev. Hotels near National Pedagogical Dragomanov University.
About Kyiv Kiev. Filled with theaters, museums, religious sites, modern buildings and ancient ruins, the city of Kyiv is the center of Ukrainian culture.
The Museum of the Great Patriotic War, topped by the massive Motherland Statue, provides gorgeous views of the city below. Start planning for Kyiv Kiev. Create a Trip to save and organize all of your travel ideas, and see them on a map. Create a Trip. Essential Kyiv Kiev. Go Play.
Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences. Alternative rock Progressive rock Experimental rock. Archived from the original on January 5, Archived from the original on Retrieved Trinity Church, of the same period, survives. Also within the walls are the 17th-century Church of All Saints and an impressive 18th-century bell tower rising feet 96 metres. A major feature of the monastery is the system of catacombs beneath it in which the mummified bodies of early monks and saints, including Nestor, are entombed.
Although it is a museum open to the public, the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is still in use as a monastery. South from the lavra is yet another monastery, the Vydubytsky, dating from the 11th century; it too was severely damaged in World War II but later underwent restoration. All along the steep riverbank, fronting the Upper Town and Pecherskyy district, an attractively landscaped park has been laid out overlooking the Dnieper.
With the views it affords, the park forms one of the most striking features of the city. It contains an open-air theatre, sports stadium, and restaurant, and a funicular railway climbs the foot metre slope.
Also within the park are many memorials. Dominating the northern end is the statue of Grand Prince Volodymyr , who brought Christianity to Rus. The statue marks the place where in the people of Kyiv were baptized en masse. The southern end, called the Park of Glory, has an foot metre granite obelisk rising above the grave of the Unknown Soldier and a memorial garden. Also located in the park are the grave of General Nikolay Vatutin , commander of the Soviet forces that liberated Kyiv in , and a rotunda marking the supposed grave of the early Varangian Viking chief Askold.
Around these central districts of Kyiv stretch extensive suburbs of factories and residential neighbourhoods. The neighbourhood units, known as microregions, consist of groupings of apartment buildings housing 2, to 5, people, together with basic services, local shops, a health centre, cinema, and primary school.
Since the late s the apartment buildings have usually been of 12 to 20 stories and of prefabricated construction. Most apartments have only two or three rooms, and population densities are therefore high, in the new residential developments as much as in the older central areas.
The growing ownership of private cars poses problems in the provision of garage space in these new districts.Kiev Women is an international online dating site for men in search for dating and marrying beautiful Ukrainian single women. Our Kiev singles placed their trust in our matchmaking services to provide a secured and fun place to engage in romance with single men from around the world.