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Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. DPReview Digital Photography. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Deals and Shenanigans. So reasonable account of this blunder, Mr. Theobald could not acquiesce in.
Upon this passage Mr. Theobald has a note that fills a page, which I omit in pity to my readers, since he only endeavors to prove what I think every reader perceives to be true, that at this time no table could be wanted. Pope, in an appendix to his own edition in i2mo.
This reading is, however, preferable to any that has yet been proposed. On this difficult passage I had once a conjecture. Collation, in addition to enabling one to choose a basic text, may help in the re- moving of textual errors. Where the basic text is corrupt, another edi- tion may provide the correct reading.
Even when two readings are obviously both wrong, in different ways, a comparison of the two errors may enable one to emend with considerable assurance. When a variant reading serves thus to help in correcting the text, it should, of course, be printed in the textual, or collation, notes. We may, however, collate various editions of a work in the hope of getting help in the interpreting of a passage in which there is no error, no necessity for an emendation.
McKerrow, in 38 For a possible explanation of this crux, see below, p. There should be somewhere preceding the text a statement that such corrections have been silently made. It may be argued that the gain in ease of reading makes such substitutions desirable, and perhaps it does; but it must be remembered that most of the people who use critical editions are sufficiently familiar with the literature of a period — or should be — that they are not bothered by any archaisms characteristic of that period.
At all events, these are matters in which an editor may please himself, though it may turn out to be his publisher whom he will have to please. Such indication can be made by printing the letters which constitute the expansion in type of a different font from that used for the rest of the word.
Bullen — who was the publisher of the first four volumes — would never have permitted it; in Prolegomena jor the Oxjord Shakespeare Dr. McKerrow wrote p. There can be no doubt, I think, that the notes giving textual variants should be on the same page with the readmgs to which they correspond, and some authorities insist 4 ' mat the notes of explanation and interpretation should also be on the same page with the material to which they refer That would mean hat almost every page would be divided into three parts and would.
Then one may keep both volumes — the text and the commentary — -lying open before him ; and it is just as easy to glance from one volume to the other for an explanation as it is to move the eyes from the top to the bottom of the page. Textual, or collation, notes may conveniently be put in this form the number of the line in which the variation occurs ; the lemma the word or phrase for which there is a variant, followed by a bracket ; the variant, followed by the siglum or sigla of the edition or edi- tions containing that variant.
Thus we might have : 21 men] man 96 If, in an edition of Hamlet, the First Folio has been adopted as the basic text, we should have this note on Act I, scene iii : lr 5 Ij Springes] I om. Qi: fprings Q2 Woodcocks. I doe know] woodcocks, Qq: I doe know om. First Quarto. But some of the difficulties just mentioned enter into the editing of more recent works. The existence of a manuscript or more than one manu- script may lead to complications.
The greater attention paid by modern authors to the correcting and revising of their works should simplify the task of achieving a definitive text, but it may instead bring about confusion. The normal human being is interested in knowing other human beings : and the only way to become acquainted with a person from whom one is separated by time or space is to read biography.
Johnson 1 — and after him Boswell -—rightly protested against biographies that were all panegyric. As Boswell put it : And he will be seen as he really was; for I profess to write, not his panegyrick, which must be all praise, but his Life: which, great and good as he was, must not be supposed to be entirely perfect.
To be as he was, is indeed subject of panegyrick enough to any man in this state of being; but in every picture there should be shade as well as light, and when I delineate him without reserve, I do what he himself recommended, both by his precept and his example. To the biographer, the saying De mortuis nil nisi bonum does not apply.
It is impossible, to be sure, that any individual should ever be able to learn the whole truth about another individual; hence the perfect biography can never be written. But for the student qua scholar, the only satisfactory biography is one that is fully docu- mented, one in which a reference — citing chapter and verse — is given to substantiate every fact set forth. Only such biographical studies will be considered in the remainder of this chapter. In earlier times, circumstances involving the receipt or expenditure of money were generally noted, and the record may exist even now ; but the writing of a poem or the performing of a play is likely to have gone un- recorded.
It is not surprising, then, that we know no more about Sbakspere — despite the fact that he lived two centuries closer to our own times — than we know about Chaucer. It is true that many records exist that have not been studied, and from these there may in the future be derived much significant in- formation.
Even those that have been published or calendared 5 may contain information that has been overlooked. The records by means of which Professor J. The largest and most important collection of official documents is that contained in the Public Record Office.
A guide to these docu- ments exists 8 and is exceedingly valuable; but those who have worked with English records, either in the Public Record Office or in other repositories, are generally agreed that no matter how well equipped one may be, with knowledge of languages, hand- writing, English history and government, and all that can be learned from books, one must still learn to use the records by using them — nothing will take the place of such apprenticeship.
In citing official records for purposes of biography one should be on fairly safe ground, though sometimes, because of carelessness or for some other reason, mistakes do occur. For England, the most important calendars are those published by the Historical Manuscripts Com- Mission. Nevertheless, the quasi-official nature of this class of documents — the fact that mistakes in accounts may be caught by a steward or auditor, that errors of the secretary may be corrected at the reading of the minutes, and that false statements in a periodical are likely to be the subject of an explanation or apology in a subsequent issue — gives such records more reliability than can be granted to ordinary diaries and letters, which are likely to be colored by the prejudice or the ignorance of the writer.
In using material of this sort we must, as has just been suggested, be on guard against two possibilities: i the information may be wrong because the writer was ignorant of the truth and, though he wrote in good faith, was mistaken in his facts; and 2 the writer may make a misstate- ment with the intention to deceive.
But Kydd is so evidently in an agony of anxiety to save himself that his statements are almost worthless. He is telling a good deal of the truth but he is also obviously lying whenever he thinks it likely to be useful. He is a stationer's apprentice in London, and passes on to become a printer; he associates with literary men of the town, and gradually abandons the printing for the writing art.
He is good-natured and placable, the respected friend of Greene [there is no evidence, aside from Chettle's own assertion, that he had any acquaintance with Greene] and Nashe, of Munday and Dekker. He suddenly comes clearly before us in the records of Henslowe, always miserably poor, struggling against poverty, turning his hand to any sort of hackwork for any meagre reward, resorting to various devices to obtain the most insignificant sums of money, yet repeatedly in trouble and sometimes in prison for debt.
Chettle may have told the truth; but in view of a possible motive for misrepresentation — the desire to make the Groatsworth more salable by completing it himself — it is not safe to assume that he did.
Let us consider now some biographical researches in which in- formation is derived from the writings of persons other than the subject. Professor Tatlock found in several references a number of details concerning an eleventh-century nun, whose own writings have disappeared.
It is not, however, professedly or allegedly autobiographical works alone that may convey information about the life of the writer. A man may write a book in which he apparently or obviously identifies himself with one of the characters in that book.
If, then, that char- acter in the course of the book makes a trip to Paris, it may be argued — though not without confirmatory evidence — that the author himself must have made such a trip. But the same author may, in a book which is in no sense autobiographical, reveal by describing Paris in terms that could not have been derived from a guide book or from any source other than personal experience, that he had been in Paris. Bunner, 41 Stephen Crane," and Robert Frost " A study may be devoted to the minimizing or negativing of such evidence as we have been considering Thus an interpretation of Sidney's sonnets as conventional would make the autobiographical elements m Aslrophel and Stella of doubtful significance " W e come now to the fifth and last kind of biographical evidence— the kind that I have called plastic evidence If we know that an author 'pent a part of his formative years in a certain environment a still existent house, or 3 college at Oxford or Cambridge— to achieve some familiarity with that environment will certainly add to our capacity for understanding the author To know what books an author read is an obvious essential to the understanding of him.
It is time now to consider how two or more kinds may be combined to furnish biographical information. Thus the waitings of Spenser and of Sidney have been examined in an attempt to discover whether or not the two Eliza- bethans were intimate friends.
Ann Ward. Robert Greene, unlike Christopher Marlowe, was a common name. But if we can come to know that English boy well enough, we may be able to appreciate the effect on him of his Oxford or Cambridge environment, and familiarity with that environment will certainly deepen our understanding of the individual exposed to it. One must, above all, in biographical studies learn not to force the evidence and then call the result a biographical fact.
The biographer should be eternally dissatisfied with what he knows of his subject until he has learned all that there is to know — if such a time can be said ever to come. But let him keep aware at all times of the sharp line of demarcation between that which is established fact, and that which is merely probable, or pos- sible.
And when the time comes to write, let him present facts alone as facts, and everything else as probability, or possibility. Or, if one prefers, let him write fiction. Then he may endow his subject with a wife named Elizabeth or one named Doll, or with no wife at all ; with children legitimate or illegitimate ; with a house in the country or one in town. So long as he keeps his material true to the psychology of the subject and the atmosphere of the period, and presents it in effective prose, the result will be good — as fiction.
It will not be biography. Was it written at the time alleged to be the date of composition? Was it written under the circumstances and for the purpose alleged? William Henry Ireland 1 fell afoul of the handwriting test. His imitations of an Elizabethan hand were convincing enough to deceive 1 William Henry Ireland forged a great variety of Sbaksperean docu- ments — leases, contracts, a profession of faith, and a letter to Anne Hathaway, with an accompanying lock of hair.
Many people were deceived; Boswell knelt in rapture and kissed the alleged relics. Becoming more ambitious, Ireland brought forth a Shaksperean play — Vortigern — and succeeded in having it produced at Drury Lane with Kemble in the leading role.
Eventually Ireland published a confession of his guilt. See also William T. The paper of which a book or manuscript is composed may pro- vide confirmatory evidence that a work is authentic or positive evi- dence that it is not. Ireland executed his forgeries upon genuine paper of the period to which the documents were supposed to belong ; thus his productions — so far as the paper is concerned — were authen- tic, and proofs of fraud had to be sought in other directions.
It was largely by means of the watermarks in the paper that Dr. Carter and Pollard 5 found that ten pamphlets dated between and were printed on paper containing esparto, and thirteen pamphlets dated between and were printed on chemical wood paper, they had proof of misdating, since esparto paper was first used in England in , and chemical wood paper was not used for books until after We have seen in the Ireland case that the paper may be genuine when the work is not ; the converse is also true.
Thus, so far as the paper is concerned, the tales now ascribed to Chaucer are no better authenticated than those which have been rejected from the canon. The type with which a book is printed may furnish evidence bear- ing on the authenticity of a work.
We may be able to determine w r hen a particular font of type was designed and first cast; if a book 5 Some fifty years ago, there began to appear, at one time and another, in the market, editions — seventy or more of them — of various works by Victorian authors; they were of interest to collectors because they were ostensibly earlier than the recognized first editions, and hence they commanded a good price, although they were not particularly rare.
Tyrwhitt, mainly on subjective grounds, had by rejected most of the non-Chaucerian pieces that had previously been accepted as genuine. Unfortunately, that conviction can not be conveyed to other people ; and the student who, from the style of a work, makes up his mind as to its authorship, must seek other evidence if he wishes to make his argument convincing.
It is true that there are some writers whose style is so distinctive 8 The ancient mariner who is said to have insisted that he knew Captain Gulliver well was probably a publicity-seeker rather than a victim of deception. Inasmuch, however, as an author uses the language of his time, or of a literary tradition such as Euphuism , or of a school such as that of Spenser or of Donne one must be careful not to mistake a common practice for an individual characteristic.
Only when a form or construction, which is frequent in the works of our writer and in the suspected work, rarely or never appears in the works of his contemporaries, can we consider that we have any reliable evidence of authorship.
Fraudulent works, however, are often betrayed by their language. Bentley proved that the Epistles and the Fables are not what they purport to be. In addition to his pseudo-medimval works, he produced a great variety of other Pieces, brilliantly written in a dozen different veins, which publishers were eager to accept but for which they were little inclined to pay.
Facing starvation, the boy committed suicide three months before his eighteenth birthday. The orthography of the alleged Rowley is no more characteristic of the fifteenth century than that of Orm is like that of the period circa The use of conceits or of an unusual type cf sonnet, a peculiar construc- tion in drama, or a special method of characterization or of plot development in a novel or short story — any of these or other technical devices may help to provide evidence for the attribution of a work To Godwin, hermit of Kilburn — assuming that he was the author oi the Ancren Riivle — certain sermons have been attributed because of parallels in technique between them and parts of the Ancren Riwle' 1 Technique in plot structure as a test of authorship is dis- cussed in an article on George Peele.
Congreve and that of four memorial poems written by James Thomson, leads to the suggestion that Thomson is the author of the Congreve poem. We have a pretty good idea of the date at which various literary devices were introduced into English literature. A work in which some device appears a hundred years or so before it is found in other works would certainly be open to suspicion.
We should look iskance upon a five-act mystery play, or a Petrarchan sonnet dated It is as easy to borrow ideas as phrases.
Indeed, friends may be more alike in the way they think than in the way they express themselves. Similar evidence was help- ful to Messrs. Carter and Pollard in some of the nineteenth-century pamphlets they studied.
If a work was written before , it may have been written by some one who died in ; but if chronology demands a later date of composition, then the attribu- tion becomes an obviously impossible one. HI We may now consider the third kind of evidence to be used in problems of authenticity or attribution — external evidence.
Some- times historical or biographical circumstances will provide significant data. To take an extreme case, if we knew that a Latin work was written in a certain village at a certain time, the fact that only one person living in the village at that time knew Latin, would be prima facie evidence of his authorship of the work.
William Combe is cited as having admitted that he perpetrated certain letters osten- sibly written by Laurence Sterne. Goldsmith, he was en- titled to assume that Goldsmith, by claiming the authorship of one of the essays, was in effect claiming all four. I have elsewhere pointed out 17 the danger of accepting such statements blindly, as they have too often been accepted in the past. It is not enough to know — if it can be known — that John Doe was telling the truth as he understood it; it is equally important to prove that John Doe was in a position to know the truth.
The attribution to John Halsam of a poem used by Lydgate, on the strength of a statement by the scribe, John Shirley, 61 is made probable by the fact that similar statements made by Shirley have been confirmed by other evidence. Juby iaith that y" play was made by Ro. Tefte W. McKerrow, IV, S.
An attack on De Quincey is attributed to Dr. Some allusions in a later review, known to have been written by Whatelv, to the earlier, gave rise to the suggestion that Whately w r as the author of both.
Correspondence between Scott and Murray, the publisher, indicates that Murray suggested that Scott write such a review and that Scott did so and sent the review 7 to Murray. Whately himself says that Scott wrote the earlier review. In such circumstances it is almost possible to sympathize with John Payne Collier in his des- perate attempt to manufacture the evidence that he lacked.
But the true scholar will do the best he can with what evidence he has, and hope that later discoveries, or the reworking of old material in a new light, will at last reveal the truth. The discovery of plagiarism is important to keep us from bestow- ing admiration upon one author for something that properly belongs to another.
Perhaps Robert Greene had a perfect right to repeat, in a later work, passages — sometimes pages in length — which he had already used in an earlier work, 3 provided, of course, that his readers and his publishers had no objection. But the fact that he did so suggests either that he had a notebook in which he jotted down material for future use and did not always cross off passages as he used them, so that he would not repeat himself, or else that he deliberately copied out passages from works already in print to save himself the trouble of working up new material.
In the one case he was certainly careless; and in the other, inexcusably lazy. If that suggestion represents what happened, we have learned 16 1 An Introduction to Research something about the hterar practices of Sidney and Greville wh. If we did not know the source of Troilns and Criscydc, we should in one sense, give Chaucer more credit than he deserves; for we should attribute to him all that was his own plus that which was the contribution of others.
But in another sense we should be doing him less than jus- tice; for we should be unaware of the peculiar genius that enabled him to take a story which was ready at hand for anybody to use and, recognizing its possibilities, to develop them and thus to create a unique masterpiece.
Let some writers make the plots or invent the techniques, and let them have full credit for their imagination and their ingenuity ; then let us give to the later writers who used those plots or those tech- niques, credit only for what they contributed, but full credit for that. It should be pointed out here, perhaps, that source study may sometimes have the effect of establishing originality where it was not expected. William Dunbar has long been classed among the Scottish imitators of Chaucer; but a study of Dunbar concludes that: 1.
The Scottish poet was an original genius who showed a marked independence of predecessors in all his work. The vast majority of those poems by Dunbar which lack originality are strongly influenced, if not dominated, by non-Chaucerian elements in the work of Lydgate.
Thus Professor Loomis traces Gawain and the Greene Knight, the Carl of Carlisle, and certain episodes in other romances to Irish traditions of the eighth century.
An author's purpose may affect his treatment of a source. Coleridge furnishes a case in point. Professor Lowes succeeded in tracing, with satisfaction to himself and conviction to most, if not quite all, of his readers, the sources of the Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan ; 17 but he confessed 18 that the problem presented by Christabel seemed in- soluble.
One of these Beautie alone is lost too warfly kept. Accept him that will loue with spotlesse truth My spotless life, which but to God gives place. Naked simplicitie and modest grace.
This in not to say that the author of the article is wrong in his assumption that Marlowe borrowed from his translation of the Am ores when he was writing Hero and Lcandcr-, such a conclusion may very well fit the facts in the case, but it cannot be convincingly demonstrated by the resemblances cited.
Another article involving Marlowe! Professor Fred L. Not only are parallels drawn extensively with plays of which Chettle is not known to have been sole author and with Look About You, a play outside the accepted canon, but the parallels themselves are of the most ordinary kind. Sometimes the resemblance goes no farther than the general idea; in other instances similar phraseology is used in totally different connections.
The learned no doubt sought this material in the original sources. But educated and half-edu- cated alike could help themselves from those reservoirs of ancient wisdom which were known to all, the books of commonplaces. The fact that an author used a literal quotation from another work does not prove that he has read the work; he may be quoting from some intermediary and may know nothing more of Cicero or Quintillian than the passage he quotes. Ravisius Textor 22 Even when an author is shown to have been thoroughly familiar with a classical writer or some other source in a foreign language, it is still possible that he has made use of a translation.
For a historical work the sources are the documents that the historian dis- covers, studies, criticizes according to scientific methods, and cites either in his footnotes, appendixes, or bibliography. The documents, the sources, are cleverly absorbed into the texture of the work. Boston, 1S71 ] sets down the actual facts of his thrilling and unforgettable experiences in the deserted bay at the island of Santa Maria, February 20, ; Melville has transformed them into a Gothic masterpiece.
The student of literature, working on the relationship of source to completed work — and keeping pace with the psychologists as they study the way the human mind functions — may eventually learn enough about the operation of the creative imagination to be greatly helpful to those who seek to produce good literature. No such knowledge, no formula, will take the place of experience; but it may be possible to eliminate some of the trial- and-error practices of literary apprenticeship.
The Owl and the Nightingale seems to have been derived from a German proverb, the Fables of Alfred, and Persian poetry. An Introduction to Research whole nahtj o!
Such studies as these may, of course, lead to the opposite conclu- sion, i. I read the series as a Renaissance production which follows the fashion of the time. If his influence is exerted through his writings, we should classify the source as a direct one, or perhaps a documentary one; if through conversation, we should call it an oral source.
But there are undoubtedly instances in which the influence is exerted through sheer force of personality and can hardly be classified in any other way. We know something about the influence — much of which seems to have been personal as much as literary— of Jonson upon the Cavalier poets ; and it can hardly be doubted that Shakspere was indebted to Jonson — and Jonson to Shakspere — in ways that we shall probably never discover. A great many instances of sources in the personality of an individual must exist.
The influence of Dryden, of Pope, and of Dr. Johnson upon their contemporaries is to be seen in many ways ; but there are doubtless as many more that have not been traced. The influence of Wordsworth upon Coleridge — and, even more, of Coleridge upon Wordsworth — cannot be fully known, or that of Browning and Tennyson or of Dickens and Thackeray upon one another. Sometimes the source of a detail in a work is to be found in the requirements of the genre or type of literature to which the work belongs.
The writer of a detective story might wish to make the footman or the gardener the villain of the piece — as might very well happen in life; but he will probably, on second thought, heed the injunction expressed by almost everyone who has written on the subject: Do not have die murder committed by a servant or other Presumably unimportant character.
That would be in the 'ery worst tradition of the lowest style of detective fiction. As with plot, so with characters the source of inspiration may be found in life itself or in literature. A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc.
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The Brandon—Hill list is a list of journals and books recommended for a small hospital library. Breakwater Books Ltd. Brill known as E. British and Irish country house contents auctions are usually held on site at the country house, and have been used to raise funds for their owners, usually before selling the house and estate. Brooklyn Arts Press BAP is an independent publisher of poetry, literary fiction, non-fiction, and art books.
Bruce M. Owen born October 13, in Worcester, Massachusetts is an economist and author. Bruno of Cologne c. Brunswick Books formerly Fernwood Books is a Canadian academic publishing company, founded in and headquartered in Toronto. Buckram is a stiff cloth, made of cotton, and still occasionally linen or horse hair, which is used to cover and protect books. Buster Bayliss is a series of books written by British author Philip Reeve, intended for younger readers.
The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Guide is a famous antiquarian book, reference book, and non-fiction work. The Calcutta Mathematical Society CalMathSoc is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and education in India. Calm is a software company based in San Francisco, California, which produces mindfulness meditation products. CalorieKing is an online weight loss club and software developer with a program centred on healthy eating and exercise "calories in, calories out".
Canongate Books often simply Canongate is a Scottish independent publishing firm based in Edinburgh; it is named for the Canongate, an area of the city. The canons of page construction are historical reconstructions, based on careful measurement of extant books and what is known of the mathematics and engineering methods of the time, of manuscript-framework methods that may have been used in Medieval- or Renaissance-era book design to divide a page into pleasing proportions.
The Carl Hanser Verlag was founded in by Carl Hanser in Munich and is one of the few medium-sized publishing companies in the German-speaking area still owned by the founding family.
Carnelli is a parlor game created by Jan Carnell, a member of the Metropolitan Washington chapter of Mensa. A cartoonist also comic strip creator is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons. Catherine S. Snodgrass is an American artist, graphic designer, author and illustrator of children's books, and advocate of children on the autism spectrum. Celebrity biographers are authors who specialize in writing sensationalized books about the lives of celebrities. Cemetery Dance Publications is a specialty press publisher of horror and dark suspense.
The Center for Book Arts in New York City is the first organization of its kind in the United States dedicated to contemporary interpretations of the book as an art object while preserving traditional practices of the art of the book. The Central University of Ecuador Universidad Central del Ecuador is a national university located in Quito, Ecuador and is the oldest and largest university in Ecuador, and one of the oldest in the Americas.
Channel View Publications is an independent academic publisher in applied linguistics based in Bristol, UK. A chapter is one of the main divisions of a piece of writing of relative length, such as a book of prose, poetry, or law.
Chapters Inc. Character animation is a specialized area of the animation process, which involves bringing animated s to life. In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon shield.
Charles Camille deGravelles Jr. The Charles H. Charles "Chuck" Taylor Jr. Charles "Charlie" W. Rush, Jr. September 21, — December 23, was an American physician who was known as a leader in the field of undersea and hyperbaric medicine, research, and education. A chess tournament is a series of chess games played competitively to determine a winning individual or team. Chris Baldwin is a British performance director and curator, professor and writer, he has lived in northern Spain for 20 years.
Christine Morton-Shaw is an author of books for children and young adults teenagers. The Christopher Award established is presented to the producers, directors, and writers of books, motion pictures and television specials that "affirm the highest values of the human spirit".
Chronicle Books is a San Francisco-based American publisher of books for adults and children. The CIA Library is a library available only to Central Intelligence Agency personnel, contains approximately , books and archives of about 1, periodicals.
Cinco Puntos Press, established in , is an independent book publishing company located in El Paso, Texas. The cinematheque of Saint-Etienne is a public film organization. A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source not always the original source. The City Central Library is located in Chikkadpally and it is the biggest library after state Central library with students and readers visit library every day.
Civita is a Norwegian liberal think tank which gains support from, among others, the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise. A classic is a book accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion.
Cleis Press is an independent publisher of books in the areas of sexuality, erotica, feminism, gay and lesbian studies, gender studies, fiction, and human rights.
Coastal Shipping Publications is a publishing company based in Portishead, a coastal town North Somerset. Coated paper is paper which has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight, surface gloss, smoothness or reduced ink absorbency. Coconino Press is an Italian publisher of comic books, founded in in Bologna, Italy. A codex from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book , plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i. Cody's Books was an independent bookstore based in Berkeley, California. Coffee House Press is a nonprofit independent press based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
A coffee table is a style of long, low table which is designed to be placed in front of or next to a sofa or upholstered chairs to support beverages hence the name , magazines, books especially large, illustrated coffee table books , decorative objects, and other small items to be used while sitting, such as beverage coasters.
Cold start is a potential problem in computer-based information systems which involve a degree of automated data modelling. The Colorado Poetry Fellowship was incorporated in with the purpose of "encouraging the development and recognition of the poets of our own region sponsoring programs by distinguished guest poets and critics. Colportage is the distribution of publications, books, and religious tracts by carriers called "colporteurs" or "colporters".
Comic book collecting is a hobby that treats comic books and related items as collectibles or artwork to be sought after and preserved. A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Common Sense Media CSM is a San Francisco-based non-profit organization that provides education and advocacy to families to promote safe technology and media for children.
Commonplace books or commonplaces are a way to compile knowledge, usually by writing information into books. The following is a comparison of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books. CompletelyNovel is a British website which allows authors to self-publish their work into a reading and writing online community.
The CERO is a Japanese entertainment rating organization based in Tokyo that rates video game content in console games with levels of rating that informs the customer of the nature of the product and for what age group it is suitable.
Concealment devices or diversion safes are used to hide things for the purpose of secrecy or security. In a non-fiction book, a conclusion is an ending section which states the concluding ideas and concepts of the preceding writing. The conger was a system common in bookselling in 18th and early 19th century England, for financing the printing of a book.
Conlan Press is an American publishing company that markets a variety of fantasy books, art books, and graphic novels. The conservation and restoration of books, manuscripts, documents and ephemera is an activity dedicated to the preservation and protection of items of historical and personal value made primarily from paper, parchment, and leather.
Consignment is the act of consigning, the act of giving over to another person or agent's charge, custody or care any material or goods but retaining legal ownership until the material or goods are sold. The Voyager Golden Record contains images plus a calibration image and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, and thunder, and animal sounds, including the songs of birds, whales and dolphins.
A contributing editor is a newspaper, magazine or online job title that varies in its responsibilities. Controversial literature is a subdivision of the Library of Congress Subject Headings, used in the description of religious books.
Copper Canyon Press is an independent, non-profit small press, specializing in the publication of poetry and located in Port Townsend, Washington. Copy refers to written material, in contrast to photographs or other elements of layout, in a large number of contexts, including magazines, advertising, and books. Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Copyright Act of was the first federal copyright act to be instituted in the United States, though most of the states had passed various legislation securing copyrights in the years immediately following the Revolutionary War. Coral Press is a small, New York City-based independent publisher of musical fiction. Cover art it is either an artwork as illustration or photograph on the outside of a published product such as a book often on a dust jacket , magazine, newspaper tabloid , comic book, video game box art , DVD, CD, videotape, or music album album art.
Craftsman Book Company of America, Inc. Crashing the Party is a book by Ralph Nader detailing his experiences running in the U. Presidential Election. Examples of credentials include academic diplomas, academic degrees, certifications, security clearances, identification documents, badges, passwords, user names, keys, powers of attorney, and so on. The Crossroad Publishing Company is a New York-based publishing house for books on spirituality, religion, and wellness.
Crysis is a first-person shooter video game developed by Crytek and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows and released in November Cuentamontes is an international contest of Mountaineering literature and photography.
Cult Movies is a book by Danny Peary, consisting of a series of essays regarding what Peary described as the most representative examples of the cult film phenomenon.
The culture of ancient Rus can be divided into different historical periods of the Middle Ages. The culture of Moldova is influenced primarily by the Romanian origins of its majority population, being heavily indebted to classical Romanian culture. Culturesfrance was a project of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Culture and Communication charged with promoting French culture around the world. A current sheet is an electric current that is confined to a surface, rather than being spread through a volume of space.
A cut-and-paste job or cut and paste approach is a pejorative reference to various kinds of work produced by "cut and paste", i. Dadabhai Naoroji Road D. Dalkey Archive Press is a publisher of fiction, poetry, and literary criticism in Illinois in the United States, Dublin, and London, specializing in the publication or republication of lesser known, often avant-garde works. Dancing the Dream is a book of poems and reflections written by American recording artist Michael Jackson.
The Darkhold, also known as The Book of Sins, is a fictional book a grimoire appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The Darwin Awards are a tongue-in-cheek honor, originating in Usenet newsgroup discussions around David R. Godine, Publisher is an American book publishing company, founded in in Boston, Massachusetts. David UU pronounced David W. Harris, — is considered an accomplished concrete and experimental poet and an important small press publisher.
Wollheim following his departure from Ace Books in De re publica On the Commonwealth; see below is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC. Debra S. Dadey born in May 18, is an American writer and co-writer of books, including 74 total Bailey School Kids titles that she has co-written with Marcia Jones.
Dedalus Books is a British publishing company specialising in European literature. Delhi Public Library is a national depository library in the Indian state of Delhi. Delicious Library is a digital asset management app for Mac OS X, developed by Delicious Monster to allow the user to keep track and manage their physical collections of books, movies, CDs, and video games.
Dell Publishing, an American publisher of books, magazines and comic books, was founded in by George T. Delacorte Jr. Delphin-Verlag was a German publishing house founded in Munich in by Richard Landauer — Deltora Quest 3 also known as Dragons of Deltora is a series of children's fantasy books, written by Australian author Emily Rodda.
Demeter Press is a not-for-profit feminist academic publisher headquartered in Ontario, Canada. Demofest is an annual music festival held at the Kastel Fortress in Banja Luka, the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Demos Medical Publishing, now an imprint of Springer Publishing Company, publishes books on neurology, oncology, pathology, and other medical subjects.
A desk or bureau is a piece of furniture with a flat table-style work surface used in a school, office, home or the like for academic, professional or domestic activities such as reading, writing, or using equipment such as a computer. The Dhaka University Library is the central library of the University of Dhaka which started in with a collection of eighteen thousand books received from Dhaka College and Law College. The Dictionnaire philosophique Philosophical Dictionary is an encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in Did Christians Steal Christmas?
DiggyPOD is a privately owned company that prints books on demand for the publishing industry and for self-publishing authors. Digital distribution also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution ESD , among others is the delivery or distribution of media content such as audio, video, software and video games. Easy To Cry. Sweet And Tender Romance.
Funny How Love Can Be. Lonely Room. Tossing And Turning. Running Round In Circles. My World Fell Down. White Collar Worker.
Time And Motion Man. Little Ray Of Sunshine. Winchester Cathedral. Playing With Fire. She Won't Show Up Tonight. Light Of The Charge Brigade.The Anthology ends with a mini-collection of some of the many adverts Carter has written and recorded such as those for British Airways and Jelly Tots! Presented on a mid-price double CD with package notes from Bob Stanley, and photos from the John Carter archive/5(3).