Familiarity Breeds DAZE Midlands. EXIT Hull. Husband on Enclave. Black Eye Promo. Friday Angels E. Desperate Little Town. Good Things. Jiggy Jiggy. You Make Me Dance. Bizness E. Brimful Of Hate. Sorry For Laughing Testpressing only.
Manmade Filth. Scoff At The Sportman's Split. Testpressing only. Punk Rock Showcase. Same released in on Milkshakes. Dialling Tone E. Concrets Scheme. Poor Mr. Diamond Pt 1. Diamond Pt. My Own Creation Acetate only. Same released on Wreckord.
RU Your Attention Please free with 'ID'-magazine 3. SEMA 4. Stars Irish pressing. Give It To Ain't Nuffink In My Pants. Live In Manchester. This Is Your Life. Teenage E. Message To The World Testpressing only. A Lancaster Compilation. Boddis E. Bridge Album. Brighton Rock Vol. Burnt Offering. Dead Good's Dead Goods. Essex Connection. Indiscreet Music: Dubious Collaboration. Jobs Not Yobs. Kaught At Kampus. Laughing At The Ground E.
Medway Poets. Music For The Shopping Precincts. Now In Session. Punk Lives: Let's Slam Vol. Ultimate Action.
Various Locals E. Vinyl Verdict. Whatever Happened To Punk Rock. Quick As A Flash. Chau Jeton. Same released on Disco Negro in Necromantic E. Aggro-vated E. Satanic Hardcore Blues E. Cough Cool one-sided. Right On. So Alive.
Let's Barbeque rejected testpress! Plain orange labels; matrix: A [instead of A1]. Sell By E. Sunrise On Suburbia E. First Aid E. Trigger Finger E. One After One Split. Relative Strength E. Fine Art E. Picture In My Pocket. Robo Polo E. Be Aware. Pennyless In Paradise. Untold Stories E. Peel Session E. On The Highway promo only. Same released on St. Valentine in Sci-Fi Monster Violence E. Cool Down. On Deaf Ears. It's Not Enough.
From through , the band has released four full-length albums, six EPs some bordering on full lengths , two collaboration records with The Body, and enough material spread out over splits to make up another four or five LPs.
The band have released three full-length studio albums to date, as well as a number of EPs and split releases with other bands. Their latest full-length album Voices was released on October 14, through Earache Records. They have been described as one of the top 10 grindcore bands by OC Weekly, and have toured Europe, and the United States. The band has toured with dozens of prominent metal and hardcore acts over the years, ranging from Hatebreed and Converge to Goatwhore, Napalm Death, Voivod, and Eyehategod.
In , the band released The Promise Incision Records , finding their place amongst other hardcore metal heavyweights such as Integrity and Earth Crisis. However, despite this early success, RINGWORM decided to pursue personal ventures: the Human Furnace concentrated his focus on tattooing and his artwork, while other members joined up with hardcore legends Integrity. Extensive touring followed.
The band continued on a steadily upward trajectory, honing its craft and releasing the well-received albums Justice Replaced By Revenge , The Venomous Grand Design, , and Scars via Victory over the course of the next decade. Formed in by Shagrat and Slasher Dave, this band is known for it's mix of doom metal riffs, death metal vocals and incorporating a lot of inspiration from Halloween and 80s horror films.
The band tend to call themselves "Halloween Metal" with a tongue-in-cheek sense of humor approach to writing music. Circumambulation garnered the band widespread praise both within and beyond the metal world and was praised by publications as diverse as Pitchfork, NPR, Decibel Magazine, and Metal Injection. The band followed up the success of that album with extensive touring across the US, Russia, and Europe, including numerous appearances at renowned festivals such as Roadburn, Fun Fun Fun Fest, Psycho California, and more.
The album rocks and rolls with serene, rounded climaxes and steep, jangling choruses that engulf the listener with waves of downbeat, saccharine melodies and mesmerizing distortion.
It would turn out to be a split 7" e. In , W. Noise is a "survivalist genre" to be sure and BN has been a prime example of longevity in tumultuous times of unrest and despair While that poem was being recited, Fury, the hardcore band from Orange County, California, was playing in Berlin, some 10 time zones and 10, miles away. The band —singer Jeremy Stith, lead guitarist Madison Woodward, rhythm guitarist Alfredo Guiterrez, bassist Daniel Samayoa, and drummer Alex Samayoa — was probably disheveled, their T-shirts wrinkled, their hair slightly undone.
Fury finished their tour about a week later, returning home suspecting they had more to say and would write another record. They also came home with a poem in mind that would guide their way, one recited a week before In Australia, at a small gathering of friends, at least one of whom had sent Stith the transcript.
Forming in , Fury established themselves quickly, releasing both a demo on Washington, D. This time, though, the band also sought new surroundings and outside expertise, collaborating with engineer Andrew Oswald at Secret Bathroom Studios, as well as mixing engineer Jack Endino Nirvana, Soundgarden, Seaweed. The new batch of songs shows growth in all directions: the slow parts more brooding, the melodies catchier, the lyrics out even further on the limb. I wanted to reflect duality and greyness, the spectrums of life.
Never black or white, always more to the story, never too much context. Instead, there is a yearning for connection and understanding alongside a belief that, even under tremendously dour circumstance, hope for redemption can still be exist. Though the idea that the human experience is something that can be understood and labeled is either right on the nose or too grandiose. Scorn was released a collaboration between Throatruiner and Mordgrimm Records. The unique metal hybridization of Scorn caught the attention of Relapse, who liked the record enough to sign the band and reissue the full-length in summer More specifically, the content behind the project is that of the existential - primal and innate musings about cause, purpose, self, and god.
It is the search for light and truth, or the fact that there is none. It comes from an embittered, burned, confused, and broken heart. It is the fight for survival when reason and foundation has turned to nothingness. It is the crashing down of towers of falsehood and the freedom that comes through a certain kind of grief. Ultimately, Mizmor is the manifestation of my long-felt depression, and neither have an end in sight.
The duo decided to up the ante and add a third member to help perfect their vicious post-industrial dystopian cyber-punk. After some deliberation, Greenberg called upon drummer Greg Fox Liturgy, Zs to help round out the sound they were looking for.
Ditching sequenced tracks, Greenberg opted for single takes to highlight the Frankenstein-like guitar-bass-synth hybrid that oozes throughout the recording. This is Uniform at its most bleak, emotional, and powerful. Growing up in a devout Irish Catholic household in an Irish Catholic neighborhood, Berdan went to Catholic school for most of his primary education, and even was an altar boy. Fear of Biblical hell and damnation felt tangible.
As Berdan grew and matured emotionally, he began to reject Catholicism bit by bit, viewing the church as a judgmental, repressive people who choose to live their lives dictated by hateful, fear-mongering dogma. In the recent past, Berdan found himself slowly reconnecting with his Catholic background, observing how the faith that he found so repressive served as a great source of comfort and strength for so many.
Eventually, Berdan began to view at the root of Catholicism and all major world religions a practice of love, tolerance, peace, and altruism. He began identifying as Catholic again, finding that basic tenets to be good guiding principles for daily life. Could one observe the rituals and practice of a faith while acknowledging and rejecting its ugliest elements? Disregarding stereotypical religious themes and instead focusing on a grieving, doom-ridden personal Hell, the band creates wildly imaginative atmospheric overtones and droning soundscapes over shattering doom metal.
Vu d'Ailleurs. The Property and Freedom Society. PFS Canceled 3 weeks ago. Contra Krugman. Maman, Je me suis fait un nouvel ami… 3 weeks ago. Bleeding Heart Libertarians. The End 4 weeks ago. Free ebooks! Liberty Hangout. Mises Canada. Democracy and Egalitarianism 10 months ago. Degen Erik. Necrodeath - Defragments Of Insanity 1 year ago. Le blog de Nord. De la religion verte 1 year ago.
Seeing the Unseen. Capitalism is not "A System of Competition" 1 year ago. Bob Murphy Show. Help Support the Bob Murphy Show 1 year ago. The Shrieks From Below. The Zeroth Position - A place for novel arguments in libertarian philosophy. Book Review: Cyber Smart 1 year ago. Most distressing to adults, the styles teenagers sported resembled those of marginal white working class and black subcultures.
Some teens preferred the elegance of styles inspired by zoot suits of the s and sported in contemporary times by rock n roll stars like Elvis Presley, Little Richard and Richie Valens. Others donned combinations of motorcycle boots, jeans, t-shirts, dungarees, leather jackets and often stained plaid shirts garnered from working class styles and inspired by icons like Marlon Brando and James Dean.
Some groups formed street gangs that were primarily identifiable in terms of style, with personalised leather jackets adorned with insignias and gang patches. Concerned adults reacted by declaring adolescent dress habits the front line in the war against juvenile delinquency. For instance, for the corporate liberal hegemonic bloc that formed in the postwar period, the grey flannel suit was a cultural emblem for the values to which that group aspired. We were all expected to look the same — and everybody did.
The suit worked to marginalise occupations that did not require suits, occupations that idealised action, namely the working class.
By donning the styles of marginalised groups, teenagers countered the containment vision of America for they brought these styles into public visibility, styles which suggested that youth, the harbingers of the future, did not comply with hegemonic values. However, 21 Ibid. Threats, Striking As Hebdige writes: Subculture forms at the interface between surveillance and the evasion of surveillance.
It translates the fact of being under scrutiny into the pleasures of being watched, and the elaboration of surfaces which takes place within it reveals a darker will towards opacity, a drive against classification and control, a desire to exceed. In , the small town of Hollister, population approximately , hosted a motorcycle jamboree for its Fourth of July celebrations. The visitors 25 Ibid. Columbia Pictures, The BRMC was based on the motorcycle gangs that were forming in southern California in the late s and early s.
These gangs often comprised alienated war veterans who felt unable or unwilling to readjust to life at home. To them, the reconstructed postwar American society of grey flannel suits and suburban houses was anathema. They sought to recapture what they perceived as the thrills and masculine bravado of their war years by living a shiftless existence, roaming free on motorcycles as their idealised masculine forebears had once done on horses.
These bikers often adorned their military uniforms with their gang or club names. Ex-pilots, for example, altered their leather flying jackets and emblazoned them with the name of their new affiliation. New inductees purchased their own jackets, initiating the postwar rebel style, which the youth culture adapted from this older generation.
The film served to influence disaffected youth by codifying stylistic elements of rebellion, like motorcycles and leather jackets, and inspiring many to rebel accordingly. The film also vindicated existing gangs. As Hunter Thompson argues, the film gave bikers a lasting romance-glazed image of themselves, a coherent reflection that only a few had been able to find in a mirror….
They saw themselves as modern Robin Hoods… virile, inarticulate brutes whose good instincts got warped somewhere in the struggle for self-expression and who spent the rest of their violent lives seeking revenge on a world that done them wrong when they were young and defenceless. We sat up there in the balcony and smoked cigars and drank wine and cheered like bastards.
We could see ourselves right there on the screen. We were all Marlon Brando. I guess I must have seen it four or five times. The overallsclad official is a subservient member of the system to which the bikers are antagonistic and scornful. When the biker gang roars into Wrightsville their clothes sharply contrast with those of the locals, which serve as markers of occupation: mechanic, barman and policeman. By contrast, the bikers are dressed not for work but for show; they are dressed for posing rather than social engagement or, for that matter, romantic encounters.
As she pours out her heart to Johnny, she begins to cry and lunges to hug him. For example, Johnny brandishes a small trophy depicting a man on a motorbike, which he often swings at groin height when he is walking around and attaches to his bike so that its stands erect as he is riding. Chino needs it. It makes Chino feel like a big, strong man. You won it. I just wanted to know if you still wanted to give it to me.
Second place? You mean Johnny only won second place? First place was two feet high! Yet the bikers themselves are often shown to lack control of the bike-phalluses between their legs. Another biker skids into an on-coming car and sustains a broken leg, which, as the literary symbol for impotence or sexual dysfunction, further compromises his 85 masculine credentials.
Even Johnny loses control of his bike at the end of the film after being hit with a tyre-iron, and his careening bike kills the old bartender. The bikers often slip in and out of feminine clothing and feminine roles. The fractured form of masculinity that the bikers embodied at least presented a version of masculinity that was more open, and held more possibilities, than the man in the grey flannel suit.
Yet the fact that they posed these questions with a sneering impertinence so seductive to young viewers was itself a major breach of the containment narrative. The pose is essentially display and, ideally, it should display difference; it should present a sight that requires a second look.
The tacit understanding that appearance constituted a threat to the social order underpinned the pose. Representations of juvenile delinquency in public education films, making a clear link between clothing and behaviour, often portrayed leather-jacketed gangs of youth loitering on street corners with latent menace.
The street corner may become the rendezvous where amateur criminals plan an act of petty car theft, such as rifling the contents of a parked car. In promotional posters for the film, he is pictured standing slumped against a wall, hair greased in a quiff, wearing jeans, boots, and a white t-shirt underneath his red leather jacket.
Although there is no hint of motion besides the curling smoke, there is subdued menace in the look. The down look, however, did not guarantee the level of compliance that whites desired. Slaves were always subject to surveillance from their white masters and forced to affect gestures and expressions that signified their subservience and inferiority, such as avoiding eye contact, smiling broadly and hunching shoulders.
While James Dean may not have consciously appropriated or even known about the down look, his pose suggests that he not only identifies with the downtrodden who are inevitably the objects of surveillance, but that he is one of those himself; that, as a youth, he is an outsider and the inevitable object of surveillance. The objective is to display a relaxed sense of control, to turn difficult physical acts into smooth, fluid, easy motion.
Both Dean and Brando clearly adopt the cool pose and walk in their performances. Strolling with his head held calmly and arrogantly back, his chin defiantly pointed toward the police officer, his shoulders loose and swaggering, and his facial expression coolly indifferent, Johnny leads his gang towards their bikes. Deliberately surveying the scene, Johnny motions to his gang with a small tilt of his head and they follow him as his bike kicks dust onto the policeman.
The point is that, for Dean, Brando, and members of the youth culture who emulated them, the cool pose, appropriated from black culture, embodied a stylistic defiance to hegemonic adult culture. Zoot suits were inextricably tied to the black jazz and hipster subcultures fomenting particularly in Harlem and Chicago and in Chicano pachuco subculture in Los Angeles in the s.
Fedora hats and jewellery, especially gold watch chains, were popular accessories. Zoot suiters and s teenagers shared similarities in their stylistic subversion and expression of autonomous identity through the cultivation of a particular aesthetic. Clothing was but a facet of both subcultures that encompassed music, attitude and even speech. Along with these subcultural elements, clothing was as an identity-affirming statement of being.
Unlike the s youth culture, though, the zoot suit was an emblem of ethnicity, a sartorial celebration of alienation and marginality from white culture and acquiescent immigrant culture. Zoot suiters faced much more violent reprisals than s youths, primarily because of their perceived lack of patriotism in the context of World War Two, but due also in large measure to their racial status. Typically, zoot suiters were black and Chicano youth who occupied liminal positions within America.
They were generally the product of second generation migrant communities; of rural black families who had migrated from the Jim Crow South to northern urban areas in the s and 30s and of Mexican families who had migrated predominantly to California, lured by the promise of better opportunities.
The children of these families experienced the bitter betrayal of these promises through racism, poverty and violence. They often turned to petty crime as structural racism limited their employment prospects to unappealing menial occupations which were the station of their parents. In this context, the zoot suit was a bold statement of being, a radical display of presence in a white-dominated society that sought to make these minorities invisible.
It was also a means of distancing zoot suiters from the growing migrant populations that acceded to the demands of the war effort, namely the thousands of blacks who migrated to urban centres from rural areas in search of relatively well-paid war industry jobs and the thousands of farmers imported from Mexico under the Bracero Program to compensate for the labour shortage in agriculture.
Both black and Chicano migrant populations swelled urban neighbourhoods, often incurring the ire of existing populations. For instance, approximately 1. This was triple the rate of migration throughout the s.
Zoot suiters belonged to neither community. Black zoot suiters considered bourgeois blacks to be Uncle Toms, acquiescent to white cultural values and apologists for white racism, and rural migrants to be simple country hicks.
Both men were subject to the ridicule of zoot suited hipsters upon their migration from rural areas, and both were pressured into adopting a defiant racialised consciousness. Recounting his days in a zoot suit, Malcolm X came to regard aspects of the style as pandering to white cultural and aesthetic standards. He also thickly vaselined my neck, ears and forehead. But then my head caught fire. I gritted my teeth and tried to pull the sides of the kitchen table together.
The comb felt as if it was raking my skin off. My eyes watered, my nose was running. I was cursing Shorty with every name I could think of when he got the spray going and started soap-lathering my head.
White and White suggest that hair straightening techniques were important African customs that prepared hair to be styled and infused with spiritual symbolism. Although removed from the context of African spiritual ritual, such practices persevered in the New World. Hair was one of the few sites of free expression among slaves and functioned as a communal activity that bound slave communities together. At the same one invokes the zoot suit, one necessarily invokes the conk and vice versa.
Members of the black bourgeoisie, however, wore their more modest conks with sensible suits that found favour according to white mainstream norms. Malcolm X holds each manifestation up to the same criticism that they symbolise a betrayal of black society, while I would argue that one must differentiate between these types of conks. That indeed is to succumb to a cultural hegemony. Such a charge could not be levelled against the zoot suit. The zoot suit emblemised their refusal to abide dominant stereotypes of the racial other as lowly unskilled worker.
In this sense, they redefined themselves primarily through leisure rather than work. Much resentment was directed at these able-bodied men who had refused or avoided the draft a favourite trick was to feign mental illness Moreover, their suits were flagrant abuses of wartime retrenchment.
Attacks spread to San Diego, New York and Chicago, where white servicemen brutally set upon black youths. Take off his pants and frock coat and tear them or burn them. It became dissociated from the jazz scene. It was also in part due to changes within the jazz scene. The ascendance of be-bop jazz relocated jazz from dance venues to coffee houses, and proponents of this style preferred the berets, crumpled suits, turtleneck sweaters, goatee beards and heavy-rimmed spectacles of hip pseudointelligentsia to the gloss of the zoot suiter.
Increasingly, dance venues like the Savoy in New York were re-populated by rhythm and blues artists who had emerged from the swing jazz era, like Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner. In turn, the dress of the patrons and the new rhythm and blues stars morphed from zoot suits to less uniformly cut but still extravagant styles. By presenting their bodies as objects of pleasure rather than instruments of labour, these flashy derivatives of zoot suit clothes performed a similar function in the black community as zoot suits of the s.
In s America, and especially the Jim Crow South, blacks were supposed to be invisible, only admissible in white society as subservient workers: porters, shoe-shiners, dishwashers and house servants, garbed in clothes that befit their occupation. Yet, some whites found these styles more desirable than detestable, as the rhythm and blues scene of the late s and early s began reaching white audiences in ways that the black swing jazz dance scene had not.
The jazz scene of the s and 40s often had a white contingent, and many whites donned zoot suits. But the difference was accessibility. The rhythm and blues scene was not so closed to white patronage.
Whites did not need to acquaint themselves with an entire arcane subculture to enjoy rhythm and blues. Advances in communication technology, like the transistor radio, coupled with the economic boom, resulted in an explosion in radio ownership and radio stations.
Freed, Phillips, Thomas and white rhythm and blues proponent Johnny Otis from Los Angeles promoted rhythm and blues package shows that often catered to integrated audiences.
These influential disc jockeys were vital to preserving the most exclusive and beguiling aspect of zoot suit culture and spreading it to s youth: jive talk. In the s, zoot suiters spoke in regionalised jive talk that was incomprehensible to outsiders.
See Chapter Five. One of the effects of this jargon was to exclude the uninitiated, which included the forces of white surveillance, for the language of the zoot suiter was ostensibly a separate language, an urban oral language that was indecipherable to outsiders.
Radio DJs were instrumental in disseminating this language. Flood' s Party,Mr. Quintet,murphy peter,murphy peter bauhaus ,murphy walter,murphys,murple,murray david,Murray Larry,Murray mickey,murray pauline,murray paulineand the inv.
Playboys of Edimbour,P. Playboys of Edimbourg ,p. Murphy Quintet,P. Playboys of Edimbourg ,P. Cloud,potters st.
Gaetano,New P. Lee Brigade,robert e. Anthony's fire,St. Cloud Endle ,St. Elmo's Fire,St. George and Tana,st. James Rod,St. John Green,st. Louis Hounds,St. What was the scheme as it originated? It was to open a new pharmacy in Central Sheffield that should be open during all contract hours and continue open until 10 p.
The original intention was to confine activities to dispensing and supply of medicaments. A hint that a health centre was to be established in Shef- field, and that it would include a dispensary, prompted one or two chemist contractors to call their colleagues together to see how they could provide a better service than any health centre could offer.
By what method was the plan to be carried out? By setting up a private company in which all the direc- tors and shareholders would be chemists under contract with the Executive Council.
Do all Sheffield chemists participate in the scheme? All had the opportunity at the start. They were invited to a meeting at which Mr. Hobson now the chairman of the company and Mr. Stocks its secretary explained what was proposed. What was the response? The response was enthusiastic and immediate. Were any limits placed on the holding of any member?
How was the pharmacy to be staffed? There was to be a day-time staff as in a normal phar- macy. In the evenings the contractors who were share- holders, together with any other pharmacists available hos- pital pharmacists, locums, representatives, etc. Has there ever been a hitch? Has there ever been a time when no pharmacist was available?
In fact it has happened, as on a certain Whit Tuesday, that a queue of customers, too many to be derJt with by those on duty, has resulted in other pharmacists being telephoned for. An additional pharmacist has been on the scene within a quarter of an hour. Has that dispensing-and-drugs only policy been adhered to?
It has been modified. The hours are unchanged, and dis- pensing is still the prime function, but it was soon found that customers expected to be able to buy all the things ordinarily sold in a pharmacy, and its scope was widened accordingly. Was any difficulty encountered in finding premises?
A little, but eventually a place was found that was almost ideal. It could be purchased freehold and was on a main transport route, with no other pharmacy within competitive distance.
How was the venture made known? A neon sign " Chemists Open " has been kept " on " during opening hours from the start. All the Shef- field doctors were invited to come and look at the phar- macy. Many of them did. Was there any difficulty about stocking up the pharmacy before it opened?
No difficulty but a lot of hard thinking and work by a " panel " of members of the company each concentrating on one section of the whole range of goods. Was the range of goods stocked the normal range for an average pharmacy? In " ethicals " far wider. Arrangements were made with wholesalers by which one small-size container of every new medical speciality launched should be supplied. As a result, every prescriber knows that, whatever he prescribes, his prescription will be promptly met.
That advantage is equally attractive to the patient. With such a comprehensive stock of " ethicals " is the pharmacy used as a depot by shareholder chemists in their own businesses? Only in emergency. In fairness to the wholesalers, who have fully co-operated from the start, out-of-the-way pro- prietaries are only allowed out to other pharmacies at times when no wholesaler is open. Did the Executive Council look with favour on the scheme?
Indeed yes, and provided valuable support and encourage- ment. Did any chemist lose business to the central, late- night pharmacy? The question is for obvious reasons not very easy to answer, but there is no apparent damage to other chemists' businesses, and certainly none of them has complained.
What staff is on duty each evening? That varies somewhat according to expected prescrip- tions, whose number can, at this stage, usually be reason- ably accurately estimated beforehand. One pharmacist every night would be supplemented on most evenings by a direc- tor. Others would be " on call. Readers are invited to send in questions on any points not dealt with. Chesterton A couple of days after his interview with the King, Adam Wayne was pacing like a caged lion in front of five shops that occupied the upper end of the disputed street.
They I were a grocer's, a chemist's, a barber's, an old curiosity I shop, and a toy-shop that sold also newspapers. It was I these five shops which his childish fastidiousness had first selected as the essentials of the Notting Hill campaign, the citadel of the city.
The fact that they were all small. The grocer if who had a wine and spirit licence was included because I. Which is more certainly the stay of the city, the swift chivalrous chemist or the benignant all-providing grocer? In such ultimate spiritual doubts it is only possible to choose a side by the higher instincts and to abide the issue.
In any case, I have made my choice. May I be pardoned if I choose wrongly, but I choose the grocer. Bett, m. LAZARE Riviere was born at Montpellier, France, in , and his association with its renowned medi- cal school lasted from his student days until his death in He does not appear to have been a particularly brilliant student.
When he attempted to sustain his M. A French medical historian, however, has suggested that the fault lay not with the student, but with the method of teaching then in vogue.
Though Riviere may have had difficulty in com- prehending and assimilating the intricacies of the ancient theories, with which the professors tried to stuff his young mind, he proved a singularly apt pupil once he was given the opportunity to gain clinical experience. He obtained his doctor's degree on May 9, , and in , on the death of Laurent Coudin, he became professor of medicine in the university.
That chair he held until his own death in His practice was extensive and his fame such that he was frequently consulted by foreigners who travelled great distances to see him. Conflicts of View An original thinker, whose methods of treatment were founded on observations made in practice, Riviere was often in conflict with those who clung to and worshipped the ancient dogmas.
To those of his colleagues who viewed any departure from the teaching of the infallible Galen as rank heresy, affirming that the ancients had said the last word in medicine, he retorted that they had not even said the first word. As late as an unsuccessful effort was made to oust the enfant terrible of the Montpellier school from his chair. Riviere upheld the alchemistic or spagyric doctrines of the great Paracelsus.
He was responsible for the introduction of the internal use of metals into clinical practice at Mont- pellier, and a firm believer in the medicinal virtues of anti- mony, which had become the subject of a bitter war between the rival schools of Paris and Montpellier. The Mont- pellier school had been accustomed to prescribe chemical remedies ever since the time of Arnold of Villa Nova in the thirteenth century, while the Paris faculty, bound by tradition and intolerant of innovation, in forbade apothecaries to sell antimony in any form.
A chance event brought the conflict between the two schools to a close. In Louis XIV had an attack of what was probably typhoid fever, which was treated with tartar emetic. Since the royal patient survived so ill-advised and so dangerous a drug, antimony quickly acquired a disastrous popularity, and in a decree authorised its use for therapeutic purposes.
All of Riviere's writings were at one time widely esteemed. His Institutiones Medicae Leipzig, , Paris, , The Hague, was for long a favourite text in medical schools throughout Europe. It gave sound advice on diet- etics, and contained interesting observations on the action and composition of drugs. Riviere employed purgatives more extensively than most of his contemporaries, and prescribed them for coughs and in catarrhal fevers. That he was a man of resource and something of a psychologist is evident from his treatment of a patient who " fell into a Phrenzie " by reason of a burning fever and, unable to sleep, cried continually that he was damned and wished to die.
The physician promised to kill him and showed him the razor with which he intended to cut his throat. He then applied leeches to the patient's forehead and at intervals drew the handle of the razor hard across the throat. Exhibiting the razor dabbed with blood which the leeches had drawn, he assured the man that he was dead. The patient, his face covered with a cloth and the room darkened, lay quietly until he fell into a deep natural sleep.
This was the turning point in his illness, for he was cured of his " Phrenzie. Where possible he recommended breast milk, but as an alternative prescribed ass's milk, believing that its abundant serosity had a healing effect on ulceration in the lung.
As an example of Riviere's readiness to expose old falla- cies may be mentioned his rejection of the widely held belief that the passion of love is indicated by the pulse at a particular point. In his desire to obtain first-hand knowledge he helped with post-mortem examinations, showing special interest in those cases where death was due to affections of the heart or lungs.
He is credited with the first description of aortic stenosis. Riviere's name lives on in the Potus Riverii, in which the wise old master combined citric acid with potassium bicar- bonate. As the title suggests the film deals with many forms of labour-saving equipment and is, in fact, a pictorial record of some of the main exhibits at the Mechanical Handling exhibitions which are held in London every two years. It has been sponsored by Mechanical Handling, which is responsible for those exhibitions.
The commentary gives information on the general operational features of the equipment, together with the classes of goods they are designed to handle. The film is particularly suitable for showing to potential overseas buyers of mechanical hand- ling equipment, professional and technical organisations, trade associations, engineering training colleges, chemical manufacturers, and in fact, to most sections of industry.
Equipments, Ltd. Acton, London, W. We have two large windows approximately 6 ft. In the winter the windows invariably steam up completely, though the window doors are closed. Tubular demisting heaters do not seem effective above 1 ft. In the summer the windows receive the full force of the sun's i ays practically all day, and again misting occurs until the windows are opened. Could you advise satis- factory demisters? Would vents above the fronts of the windows be of use?
The way to prevent condensation on windows is to keep the air on the inside face of the glass as near to the out- side temperature as possible. First, there is a ventilator in the stallnser, then small strip vents in the window bed, just behind the glazing beads, then further strip vents in the window soffit, and finally vent holes or strip ventilators in the top frieze rail.
The air enters at A, travels up the inside face of the glass as a cold air stream, and goes out at B. Because the window is an enclosed space, and thus slightly warmer than the outside atmosphere, the rising of the slightly warmer air creates a flow which draws the cold air in at the bottom and forces the warm air out at the top.
There is, however, another factor to consider: window lighting. If the ventilation detailed as described existed in a window it should not mist up during the day, but misting when the window lights are switched on at night indicates that the top ventilation is not sufficient. The soffit lamps would be causing the temperature inside the window to go up, and creating condensation.
It fol- lows then that, when a window is illuminated, the heat given off by the lamps must be adequately ventilated above, and it will be seen, in the section through the window, that there is an additional ventilator at C. It is sometimes fitted with a sliding mask, so that the ventilation at that point may be open or closed.
It may also be necessary to increase the ventilating area at B according to the wat- tage of the lamps fitted and the amount of heat they generate. If the method as shown and described is main- tained, and the vents kept free, it is reasonably safe to predict that, for the average window, the problem will have been solved, but it would not be wise to maintain that it will cure misting in every window.
Each site — and each window — may have its own peculiarities, and I have known certain shops, situated sometimes on a very ex- posed corner and subjected to a prevailing wind, where special methods have had to be employed to correct the difficulty. A word, too, should be added about window enclosures, and about selling from the window. If the en- closure doors are left open for a short while the warm air entering may cause misting that might take three or four hours to clear.
Window enclosures must be as air-tight as possible. If you have not the form of ventilation stated above and illustrated in the sketch, I suggest that you call in a shopfitter and ask him if it is practical to ven- tilate your window in that manner, at the same time ask- ing him to go over the window enclosure to ensure that it is reasonably tight.
If his report is that your windows are properly ventilated and the enclosures sound, then your problem is more than likely one of site and prevail- ing wind, for which special measures would have to be taken. From your remarks regarding misting-up in the summer I suspect, however, that your trouble is lack of proper ventilation.
What is happening at that time is that the rays of the sun, pouring through the glass, make the inside of the window warmer than the outside tempera- ture, causing misting that is counteracted when you open your enclosure doors and thus allowing the excess heat to escape into the shop. Written by a former LCI. Research Fellow, University of Glasgow, now at Yale University school of medicine, the book is written primarily for readers to whom the subject is new. Biology, it points out, differs in complexity rather than in kind from chemistry and physics, and the action of a drug on man depends on the action of man on the drug.
That established, the book sets out to explain the relation- ships between drug structure and effect. The needs of chem- istry students have been foremost in the author's mind, but an " extremely elementary " appendix on " The Body as a Machine" and "Nervous Controlling Mechanisms " make the remainder of the book intelligible for readers with no knowledge of anatomy, physiology or biochemistry.
Graphi- cal formulae are freely used throughout the book. Textbook of Pharmacognosy T. Churchill, Ltd. The third edition of this well-illustrated pharmacognosy text book follows the plan of previous editions but in- cludes references to items which have come into promi- ence since the last issue went to press.
Among the new items are rauwolfia, visnaga, duboisia, buckwheat and sources for chlorophyll. To make room for the new items it is interesting to note that the author has deemed it pre- ferable to reduce the space allotted to some of the botani- cals that have dropped out of favour in Great Britain" rather than drop them entirely.
For it must be remembered that in other countries of the Commonwealth as well as those in Europe many of such drugs still find favour. Patrick F. McGrath elected President Mr. Maurice Power, Limerick, Vice-president, with Mr. Hugh P. Michael Costello, out-going presi- dent, in the chair. Also present were Messrs. O'Neill, T. Scott, V. McElwee, J. O'Regan, D. Kennelly, J. Kissane, A. Toher, T. O'Sullivan, J. Gleeson, N. McKane, and F. Cos- tello welcomed Mr. Vincent McElwee, Donegal, on his first attendance at a Council meeting.
McElwee had attended a number of Committee meetings that morning and if his contributions there were indicative of his work in Council then they had got a valuable new member with the perfect pharmaceutical outlook. McElwee represented one of the best organised counties in the State from the pharmacy point of view.
The Council hoped he would be with them for many years. For personal and very unselfish reasons Mr. James O'Rourke had decided not to seek re-election.
While expressing the regret all the members of Council felt at the absence of Mr. O'Rourke from the Council he the President must pay tribute to the conscientious, honest and sincere mind Mr.
O'Rourke had brought to bear on Council affairs. He had never spared himself on behalf of the profession. The president then mentioned the success of Captain Fitzgibbon of the Army pharmaceutical staff in recently winning the Irish open amateur golf championship. Captain Fitzgibbon was especially concerned to protect the professional stand- ing of pharmacists in the Army, and the Council should send him their congratulations hear, hear.
McElwee, thanking the president for his welcome, said that he would do his best to further the aims of phar- macy, and in that he knew he would have the support of the Association in County Donegal. He could not hope to give the service that his predecessor, Mr.YOUTH OF TODAY SUNDAY, JUN 7TH EMPIRE CONTROL ROOM & GARAGE. Youth of Today is a Straight Edge hardcore band from New York City. Formed in by singer Ray Cappo and guitarist John Porcell, they took the core values of straight edge, no drinking, no smoking and no drugs, incorporated no meat eating and set out to change the world.