Boots Duck Boots. Learn More. Washable Shoes. Women Shoes. Shoes Accessories Clothing View All. Men's Women's Kids. Cart 0. Previous Next. Shop Summer Styles. Hundreds of Styles. Shop the sale. Waves of Pride Celebrate all month long, in shoes designed for all and made with pride. Shop Pride Styles.
PicClick is an elegant and simple tool that is more enjoyable to use than the built-in search tools on eBay I love eBay, but what I don't love is the crazy amount of scrolling I have to do.
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Also limit red meat, refined sugar and white four. Just a few simple changes can have a positive impact on health. The event helps raise public awareness of the benefits of chiropractic care and its natural, whole-person, patient-centered approach to health and wellness.
GeorgeParisi D. She has been in private practice in the Chester Township area for more than 20 years. For more information about how Dr. Parisi can help achieve better overall health and wellness, call or visit Geaugawestchiropractic. Eutrophia Farms, Absolute Auction Elisabeth Alexander has been a well-known fixture in the Ohio horse racing community for some time now, but the.
Hotline www. The property, located at Sherman Road, Chester Township, consists of a roughly acre equestrian estate. The updated home is a split-level, two-suite farmhouse. Transfers may involve sale of land only.
Crysler and Carmen D. Evans, Briarwood Drive, to Robert M. Philpott trustees , Shiloh Drive, to Emerson O. III and Elizabeth A. Scholtz, Lincoln Drive, to Todd E. Upstairs and downstairs both offer a two-bedroom, singlebath suite. Also offered for sale on the same day are 17 horses — yearlings and broodmares — and a sizable personal property collection including trucks, trailers, tractors, equipment, tack, tools, furniture and other items.
Registration will begin at 9 a. Interested parties can also join the bidding process via Internet at CertifiedLandAuction. Property details, photos and terms and conditions can be found at CertifiedLandAuction. United Country — iNational can be reached at , or by email at Myers.
Donald A. Pokorny TOD , E. I know how to show respect for everyone, even those who may complain. Over the past few years we have learned about trustees wasting money, about minutes not published for months, about meeting time taken up by trivial matters.
These are the reasons I decided to run for office. I pledge to end the petty squabbling and make Chester citizens proud of their government.
I will make the best decisions I can for the benefit of Chester Township. If a voter asks me why I made a decision, I pledge to answer the question. I pledge to have a video recording made of every meeting and have it immediately placed on the Chester Township website.
I pledge to show respect to the other trustees and to every citizen, even if we have differing opinions. With this in mind, I will make every spending decision based on what is best for the entire township, not for special interests.
I pledge to place every detail of the Chester budget on the Chester Township website. Call Ben Pollice, former resident of Chesterland, now living in Florida, hoping to sell both! Call Mr. Ben J. Pollice at , or Marion Pollice at Very clean, maintained trucks, well remote start, hard cover, spray in bed liner.
For more information, please call Bob at Kirtland: Route 6, just west of Space available for commercial and industrial businesses. Call File cabinets 3 , 2 drawer double wide, legal size with locks, make offer.
Western Reserve mausoleum: 2 indoor niches, 2 weekday openings and closings, use of chapel twice, glass front, free chapel service. Must sell. Phone If you need to have a moving sale, estate sale or garage sale, call Kathy Willis at for assistance. References available. We are now doing partial estate buyouts. Cleveland Orchestra Christmas Concert. December 14, afternoon performance. Also buying misc.
Estate Sale: Saturday, Oct. Drive, Chester-land. Furniture, tools, household items, much misc. No early birds, please. Hundreds of trees and shrubs, thousands of perennials, glazed pots, garden accents and more. Registration at 9 a. Auction 10 a. Rain or shine-inside. Saturday and Sunday, 9 a. Early American furniture, housewares, leaf blower, trimmer.
Vintage twin bedroom set, deacons bench, dresser, spool leg table, end tables, wood bench, vanity seat, nightstand, 4 upholstered bar stools, dolls, tools, holiday and household items — all priced to sell!
Dishwasher and light cleaning: cooking school looking for a dependable and energetic candidate for dishwasher and light cleaning position. Previous experience preferred, but not necessary. Fill application at out Mayfield Road, Chesterland. Snowplow drivers wanted: looking for snowplow drivers to drive our company vehicles in the Chesterland area. Experience preferred, clean driving record required.
Must be on call all winter, 24 hours a day when snow is falling. Please call for interview. Fixed, friendly, house broken, well behaved, no cats. Hardwood floors, vaulted living room ceiling, full basement half finished , 2 car attached garage. Move in ready, convenient desired area. Mayfield Schools. Do it the easy way. Call for details. Landscaping, Auburn Township. Experienced or inexperienced. Monday through Friday, no weekends. Valid drivers license required.
Top pay. Color copies, great price! The Chesterland News offers full service copying. Color or Black ink, any quantity on any paper. Scanning and fax service available at the Chesterland News, Mayfield Road, Chesterland, Flyers to distribute? Please check your ad!
We make every effort to avoid errors. Any errors should be called in to the Classified Dept. We cannot be responsible for more than one incorrect insertion if you do not call the error to our attention. Thank you. Professional insured, call Dan at Music Lessons: guitar- beginning to advanced.
Rock, jazz, classical. All band instruments. Fall clean ups and snowplowing: reasonable, dependable. Plumbing: Professional, affordable, reliable. Water heaters, toilets, faucets, drain cleaning. Yard and storm damage clean-up, down tree removal and brush chipping.
Carpenter: 30 years experience. Kitchen, decks, finish work, doors, storm doors, small jobs also. Pressure washing and deck refinishing. Chesterland resident, references. The technique involved pass- ing an alternating current of about 15, cycles per second through a crystal of quartz which made the quartz vibrate and produce series of compressions and rarefactions in the surrounding medium and thereby propagating sound waves. Langevin had sandwiched slabs of quartz be- tween the steel plates of his underwater transmitter which produced sound that traveled a path similar to the beam of a searchlight.
Throughout World War I the Navy's major investigations had been made at its experimental station, New London, Conn,, where important techniques were developed which, however, were too late to enter the war. The SC acoustical air tube was expanded to contain six or more nipples on each bow. In September experiments were conducted with quartz-steel echo ranging techniques Langevin's principles and resulted in producing under- water sounds which were reflected from a moving target several hundred feet distant.
When World War I ended the Asdic Committee was dissolved; nations and organizations pursued their own interests. The very few first-rank scientists who remained with the Navy, despite inappropriately low wages allowed by the government, have undoubtedly been extremely loyal in their efforts to lick an unsolved technique of grave importance.
One important development beginning there was the Hayes Sonic Depth Finder; it con- tained an electro -magnet which sent sound waves to the ocean floor, received the reflection, and indicated the depth by a timing device calibrated basically at feet per second speed of sound through water. This system was built by the Washington Navy Yard and installed in some Naval vessels. Hayes, practically. The equipments developed at NRL in conjunction with the Bureau of Ships Sonar Section and progressively in- stalled in Naval vessels during peacetime, constituted the primary Sonar techniques which were employed throughout World War About this time certain terminology was adopted; "Sonic" sound covered the audible range from 16 to Average ears respond from about 40 to 15, Propellers create sonic and supersonic sounds.
Work on the acoustical sonic system was continued at low priority since desired signals Propeller noise suffered severe loss during transfer from water to air. Comparatively little signal strength is lost by transfer from water to electrical microphones and then to telephone head sets; therefore, development of electrical sonic systems was advanced in order to equip ships with the best available apparatus.
However, sonic systems were generally unsatisfactory because various water noises caused by own propellers, own ships movements, etc. Therefore greatest emphasis was on the supersonic echo ranging experiments - the advantages are many; the signal is amplified electronically vacuum tubes , employment of supersonic frequencies narrows the reception range to a selective band thereby eliminating much of the oceans inherent sonic noises, and directivity of reception is confined to selective narrow pie-shaped sections.
To these improved listening techniques are added the "ping-echo" features. The first experimental echo ranging sets operated at frequencies between 20, and 40, cycles per second. These "supersonic"voltages were generated by a transmitter that fed the transducer combined radiating and receiving unit which protruded through the ship s A-2U0 5 bottom.
The four -inch thick transducer consisted of quartz slabs sandwiched between steel discs about sixteen inches in diameter. When part of the sound wave struck the target submarine, a small portion of the energy was reflected back to the transducer which fed the "echo" through an elec- tronic amplifier to earphones and a range distance indicator. The direction in which the trans- ducer was facing indicated the target's bearing. Only about twenty watts of power was transferred to the water and echoes were obtained from a few hundred feet distance.
The equipment gave re- sults while the ship in which it was installed was underway at speeds below 3 or 4 knots, and in several Naval vessels commenced sea trials with the NRL quartz-steel echo ranging Sonar. These echo ranging inventions are considered the greatest contributions to the science of under- water detection. About the Submarine Signal Company was producing water depth indicators called "Fathometers". The transmitter consisted of an electro -magnet which banged a piston against a diaphram facing the ocean bottom thereby emitting a cycle soimd wave which was reflected from the ocean bottom to a button type microphone.
This "echo" was fed to a calibrated scale where neon light flashes indicated the depth. Fathometers were eventually installed in most Naval vessels. It was designated as JK and was in effect the listening portion of our echo ranging Sonar; thus, the listening head had the shape of current transducers, but in place of the quartz crystals used in echo ranging, the newly developed Rochelle Salt Crystals were employed since they were comparatively more sensitive.
The transducer was mounted on the top side thereby permitting use of the Sonar only when the submarines submerged. The JK increased listening ranges to about 5 miles under average water conditions and gave bearings accurate to within a few degrees. Shortly afterwards they were modified by addition of a small transmitter which provided a feature simi- lar to the "ping feature in echo ranging; this feature was used for communication between sub- marines.
Also, a few JK s were modified for underwater voice communication. For many years the JK remained as the most valuable listening equipment in submarines. It was practically identical to our surface vessel Sonar except that it employed Rochelle Salt Crystals instead of the quartz crystals used in surface ship transducers. The QB's in addition to the JK's were sub- sequently installed in new construction submarines where the transducer protruded through the keel, thereby enabling use of the QB whether the submarines were surfaced or submerged.
Thus by the Navy Yard at Washington had produced about a score of quartz -steel echo ranging for destroyers and was engaged in production of about 60 JK listening Sonar for sub- marines, and the Submarine Signal Company commenced' production of about SO QB echo ranging Sonar for submarines. These equipments operated satisfactorily up to ship speeds of about 5 knots beyond which the roar and crackle of water noises drowned out target noises and echoes.
To reduce the turbulence caused by the movement of the flatfaced transducer through the water, NRL produced a spherical cover about 19 inches in diameter, made of sound transparent rubber developed in collaboration with the Goodrich Company. This "dome" permitted 10 knot speeds before water noises became excessive, and was subsequently incorporated in all our transducers.
About this time a transducer was invented in which magneto-striction tubes replaced the quartz or salt crystals. The tubes elon- gated or contracted when their magnetic flux was changed. The electrical energy from the trans- mitter caused movements of the magneto-striction tubes which resulted in vibrating the diaphram of the transducer, thereby emitting pings".
Conversely, when any sound waves which struck the diaphram caused a change in the magnetic flux of the magneto-striction tubes, an electric cur- rent was generated which resulted in signals corresponding to the sound source, i. In the Bureau of Ships designed, and the Submarine Signal Company commenced production of, the magneto-striction echo ranging equipment which were subsequently installed in 8 destroyers and 6 submarines per year.
The handful of zealous Sonar workers were now busUy engaged in continuing developments to improve Sonar and investigating Sonar's operating medium - the ocean. Information was needed concerning the loss in intensity of sound traveling between two poiats, reflecting prop- erties of targets, character and masking properties of extraneous background noises, effects of temperature changes, and methods of making absolute underwater sound measurements. Data on these factors was essential to the design of efficient equipment.
NHL began studies in detail of these water propagation characteristics on a purely scientific basis. In two destroyer divisions and two submarines based at San Diego were engaged in training of Sonar operators and formulating 'Sonar Tactics Doctrine" to prescribe the basic procedures of employing Sonar in convoying.
Each Sonar may begin searching a given sector by listening on the transducer, moving it a few degrees, listening, etc.
If a submarine s noise or propellers are heard, or it is suspected that the submarine is lying -to, the Sonar "ping-echo feature may be employed. Sometimes the search is conducted entirely by pinging. Once an echo is received, several escorts usually maintain Sonar contact with the submarine while they attack by Sonar navigation. The submarines' Sonar can usually hear pings at distances greater than from which ping echoes can be obtained; thus if he remains distant where pings do not reach or moves further away, his attack on the convoy is frustrated, if he moves toward the convoy the pings.
If the submarine fires torpedoes, they may be heard by Sonar and perhaps avoided by quickly turning the surface ship. Early in it became apparent that training of personnel could not be handled as a by- product of engineering and tactical tests.
Consequently the U. Fleet Sonar School at San Diego was established in order to increase training facilities. Various instructional equipments including electronic anti-submarine attack teachers for duplicating seagoing training were being developed and used. To provide more equipments and training, the Radio Corporation of America was placed under contract by the Bureau of Ships and commenced production of echo ranging Sonar in the summer of The value of Sonar was becoming keenly appreciated.
Thus by Sonar had progressed remarkably since The capability of World War I listening apparatus was limited to indicating the presence and general area of U-boats that were underway.
Now, as the World was on the brink of another war, in which the U-boats were to take a major role, we had ships equipped with Sonar systems capable of detecting U-boats whether they were surfaced, submerged, underway or lying still;, furthermore, we could tell their bearing, distance, and almost exact location.
This achievement was literally due to a few individ- uals whose zeal was imthwarted by many disappointments- occasioned by lack of adequate funds for resesirch and development, insufficient appropriations to equip more than about a dozen ships per year, and limited fuel allowance which prevented ships from conducting more tactical train- ing exercises.
The naval officers who pioneered Sonar pleaded in vain to have these deficiencies adjusted. The Navy's joh of "preparing for war in peacetime had been done in the Sonar field to the limit of available appropriation. When World War 11 began, neither Axis nor Allies were prepared for intensive submarine warfare. The Germans had onlv about twenty ton and ten ton oceangoing U-boats, The British had fitted their "ASDIC British word for Sonar on destroyers, 34 small patrol craft, and 20 trawlers, and the United States had about 60 destroyers fitted with echo ranging Sonar.
Contracts were made with the Submarine Signal Company to increase production of echo ranging equipments in order to equip our old destroyers within six months.
Sonar and Asdic scientists became aware that they had paralleled developments and possessed practically identical equipment. The primary differences were: British Asdic transducers contained quartz -steel while U. Sonar had magneto -striction; British Asdic domes were streamlined while ours was a sphere; British Asdic ranges were permanently recorded on a range recorder while Sonar ranges were indicated on a dial.
The range recorders are a valuable aid in conducting an attack; we obtained samples from Britain and the Sangamo Electric Company started producing our own types. The streamlined dome increased the ships speed at which Sonar could be effectively operated from 10 up to 15 knots; we adopted it from Britain, Canada furnished some equipment, then the Submarine Signal Company, the Rice-Barton Company, and the E.
G, Budd Company commenced production of U. Britain also furnished some ASDIC Electronic Attack Teachers which provided realistic methods of maneuvering models of an Asdic fitted escort attacking an evasive U-boat within the confines of a Sonar classroom. These Asdic Teachers added to the growing number of Sonar Teachers. Thus began a technical liaison which quickly enveloped British.
Asdic and American Sonar scientists, officers, technicians, etc. Research, development, ideas, etc. Navy activities, both countries ex- changed visits to laboratories, etc. The first year of World War II was a typical blitzkrieg. The Norway invasion in April provided more U-boat bases and Italy brought about submarines into the war, 60 were ocean- going.Selecting these links external site icon will take you away from faugladtauscinagcirsinglenmaerisdeansti.xyzinfo Kaiser Permanente is not responsible for the content or policies of external websites. Details.