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Delicious Dish: Boiled Boot - Charles Chaplin* - The Music Of Charles Chaplin Vol. 1 The Silent Movies (CD)

31.12.2019 Kagazuru 6 Comments

This is a rare chance to learn from the people that make celebrities look amazing — not to be missed! To win, answer this question: The original and first Afro Hair Show took place how many years ago? See below for entry details. A spirited and touching tale about human fate, hilarious and wonderfully warm, teaching us that the littlest life can have the biggest adventures. We have two copies to give away. Simply answer the question below — see below for entry details.

Which mousy tale did Lee Evans star in back in ? Pasolini Boxset Vol. Often tackling controversial subjects, Pasolini left a legacy of great films. To be in with a chance of winning one of three copies, answer the following question: What nationality is director Pasolini?

Entrants must be 18 or over. Take an exclusive walk around their new exhibition at Tate Modern in this all-new DVD that offers a unique insight into the famously elusive pair. To be in with a chance of winning one of three signed copies, tell us: Gilbert and George is the latest film in whose series? We have two sets of these four titles to give away. To be in with a chance of winning simply tell us: Which set of real-life twins portrayed Elizabeth and Jessica in the s TV series based on these books?

Told in Spanish with English subtitles, El Topo follows a gunslinger and his son who travel across the desert. Stumbling across a massacre, a dying man tells of a colonel and his gang who are to blame To win one of three copies: Name the director of El Topo. Entrants must be aged 18 or over. To be in with a chance of winning email competitions thelatest. Leave your answer to the question in the body of the email along with your name, contact address and number.

Alternatively, write to us at the address at the front of the magazine. Closing date for entries: 29 May. Simple as that. No traffic. No queues. No rows. No hassle. Ask about our flatpack assembly service We are an independent limited company and not part of the Ikea group. Did we really?

Or could we just have been mistaken? That drunken Tuesday I remember My ice cream cone tasted sour, You dropped your flake onto the pavement. But did we see him? We did, surely. Or was he merely a reflection Of the past or, what, the future? Only kidding! Mother Earth is a beautiful lady, and to see her treated like some filthy, stinking, disease-ridden sow makes me quite literally vomit with fury.

So stick that up your carbon footprint! See ya! An occasional series in which we ask the opinion of both celebrities and lowly proles on a local issue.

This week — what do you think of the New England Quarter development near the station? I had this great idea for a Sainsbury's that was Freaky huh? Bet that messes with your minds. In fact it's a lot like I imagine Eden must have looked. Audience interaction is generally something best kept to a minimum at stand-up gigs. Of course, you always have the lambs to the slaughter — otherwise known as the front row — who will get picked on and asked to respond to certain questions set by the compere.

And this should be as far as it goes. Buy them a drink afterwards instead and have a chat then. I was doing a gig the other day and as the acts that were on before me were going through their well thought out and considered material there seemed to be two people — one on either side of the front row — who appeared to believe that there was no one else sitting behind them in the rest of the venue.

Not only were they answering questions, but also interrupting sets during the pauses. It interrupts the flow. So where do the luckiest dogs in the world live? Surely Los Angeles must rate highly amongst the most dog-friendly places on this planet? To succeed as an A-list canine in Tinseltown, you need a distinctive pedigree breed-mix to successfully achieve the accompanying silly breed-mix name.

A Pug crossed with a Beagle? You get the idea. Are they being bred just for the silly names? Over here, the two are almost interchangeable. Diamond studded jackets, designer foods, and pet daycare are all easily accessible, plus alternative therapies like massage, acupuncture and flower remedies. At the Pet Spa, of course! The most common breed of dog is by far the Chihuahua, possibly due to one celebrity endorsement in particular.

Sadly, the resulting supply seems to be being met by illegal breeding and smuggling of car-boot-fulls of these smallest of all puppies, from just across the border in Mexico — their country of origin.

With a choice of dogwalker, dog-hiker longer walks on more rugged terrain , walking your own dog on the sidewalks, or to give your pooch the ultimate day out — a trip to the Dog Park at the famous Laurel Canyon. This rather exclusive district, once inhabited by the likes of Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin in the s, is now home to an open space dedicated purely to dogs and their owners.

They can run around, socialise, or just hang out, and I even witnessed some dogs doing that too! I even saw a cat and a snake! To advertise in either publication, phone the USSU marketing team on or email ussu-marketing sussex.

Graze of thunder The Udderbelly is best known for comedy, but this week there are some top musical acts ready to rumble Music has generally taken a back seat this year but the final week of the Udderbelly will see some classy action, with sounds from around the globe. With percussionists on stage alongside a large number of singers of all abilities, Juliet leads the whole of the audience to create a huge upbeat vocal sound in the shortest space of time.

This small village in the Moldavia region is home to hundreds of musicians including the masters Fanfare Ciocarlia. Combining brass with percussion, it is a music for celebrating, for dancing and simply for passing the time of day! Call or see www. Whether singing about love won and lost, women, drinking, or a life full of sorrow, loneliness and empty promises, MFC lull you into their warm, enchanting and yearning harmonies and melodies, setting up the listener for a journey of exquisite melancholy beauty.

Yiri Baa Yiri Baa which means big tree make exuberant, free-spirited and explosive West-African Highlife music that defies you to stay in your seat. Featuring the flute, saxophone and ngoni, plenty of tribal percussion and outrageous singing and dancing, Yiri Baa brings you the sunshine and passion of Africa.

Led by Gambian artistic director Bucarr Ndow — a member of the international touring troupe The Master Drummers of Africa — the Yiri Baa musicians perform traditional rhythms fused with contemporary beats, played on both African and Western instruments. A regular feature on the festival circuit and based in Brighton, Yiri Baa formed in when Ndow brought together a group of musicians to fulfil an ambition of bringing his favourite West-African rhythms to British audiences.

All the band members are accomplished musicians, touring and performing with other bands, with backgrounds in jazz, latin, calypso, folk and funk. Great Escape Over three days, more than established and up-and-coming bands and singer-songwriters will perform at a number of Brighton venues as part of the Great Escape. The Great Escape, Udderbelly, 19 May, 4pm.

Open to Great Escape ticket holders only. Visit www. Take a picnic under the shade of a tree, dangle toes in the side of the river and finish the day with a gin and tonic in a country pub. Ah, perfect! Red smock, from a selection, Monsoon 6 As the end of the day draws in, cover up in a light summer jacket. Do it in style with this fluted sleeved one. Jacket, from a selection, Dorothy Perkins 7 Slip some earrings in as you stroll to the pub for a little extra glamour.

Where do stories come from? And who do they belong to? Stories are all around us. Incidents, accidents, conversations and chance encounters. From the everyday to the out-ofthe-ordinary, our stories make up the fabric of our lives. We use them to shape our world. Designed by typographer Richard Wolfstrome and presented by leading 3-D company Standard 8 in a series of stunning and witty installations, these 41 found narratives are appearing across Brighton during May, on shopfronts and side streets, in car parks and public spaces….

Do you find me amusing? Do I make you laugh? You can read the stories as you come across them or track down all 41 stories in a textual treasure hunt. You won the lottery? The prize includes Full Board accommodation and use of all facilities. Entrants must be over Put your money where your mouth is Brushing your teeth twice a day is only the start of maintaining optimum oral health.

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Calendula is famous for its soothing and healing properties, keeping gums in top condition. A new chalk base gives a creamier consistency and colour, and more efficient cleaning. Look amazing Jessica Mason discovers that a skin peel can be as pleasant as a face massage, and work wonders too. Soul Purpose: Personal Support Sessions Powerful and compassionate support for any area of your life.

Working from a transpersonal perspective. Allowing you to unfold at your own pace. Couple counselling Express your truth with each other and communicate with trust and openess. First session is free. Based in Brighton. Contact Mark mark soulpurpose.

They are best known for running the Turning Point courses. Brighton Laser Clinic has just introduced another fantastic treatment to its steadily growing range. Well known for its laser hair removal and thread vein treatments, it has now introduced a rather more relaxing and pampering treatment, the Jan Marini peel. If skin peels conjure up scary images of those poor souls on 10 Years Younger with the burnt-looking faces, you need not be alarmed.

These peels use glycolic acid — a natural acid derived from cane sugar — and achieves fantastic results with minimum fuss. The procedure is fast and convenient, taking only about half an hour. In fact, after the first treatment, I noticed immediate results yet could still pop my make-up back on, go back to work and no one would be any the wiser. I was first provided with a pre-peel kit to prepare my skin two weeks before my first treatment.

This is a four-step programme with various cleansers and moisturisers targeting different problem areas, like spots and fine lines. I started to see results after the first few days. I had been suffering from a few spots, but the redness began to go down almost immediately and my skin began to appear clearer.

I was looking forward to my treatment by this stage and was not to be disappointed. It really is very enjoyable. Your skin is first cleansed thoroughly, then the pre-peel treatment is applied, which just tingles a bit.

The peel is then applied and is massaged into your face, which is very relaxing. This part of the treatment only lasts a few minutes. A cooling, hydrating mask is then applied whilst you relax and put your feet up. I was very pleased with the outcome. The treatment not only visibly diminishes the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles but also smoothes and softens skin, increases hydration and suppleness and balances irregular skin tones, giving you healthier, younger-looking skin.

It is recommended to have between four and six treatments in order to achieve the desired effect. After two treatments, I can see it working. Jan Marini peels are available at Brighton Laser Clinic and can be used on the face, neck, chest and hands and are suitable for all skin types. And Fitness, Fitforall, 7.

Talk it out More than just a listening ear, professional counselling can be an excellent, empathic way to deal with the problems of modern life Why go to counselling? For some people, the idea of counselling still conjures images of a hyper-neurotic Woody Allen whining to expensive New York shrinks about his mother. Not so. Although Ilene never had children of her own, she managed to love and maintain contact with over 40 nieces and nephews throughout her entire life.

She traveled to see many of them located across the U. She never missed a holiday or birthday touching each of them with her unique handmade greeting cards, which she created from her own artwork. Toale Brothers-Ewing Funeral Home is in charge of arrangements. William actively served eight years in the U. Air Force. He graduated from Concordia College of Moorhead with a B. He returned to Concordia College and served 28 years as a chemistry professor. William was instrumentally active by introducing computers to the chemistry department of Concordia College.

He retired to Florida in and taught Chemistry part time at State College of Florida, Venice until he retired in He was preceded in death by his father, mother, sister, brother, father-in-law, two sisters-in-law, one brother-in-law, uncles and aunts.

To offer condolences and sign the guest book, visit Legacy. Gloria was born Oct. Gloria was a loving mother and enjoyed taking care of her family. Gloria was preceded in death by her husband, Edmund, in , and a half-sister, Barbara.

Miami Ave. Burial will be held at Sarasota National Cemetery. Farley Funeral Homes and Crematory is in charge of arrangements. Full obituaries, notices of services, remembrances and death notices are subject to charges. Email the item for publication to obits sun-herald.

For more information, call Thank you, Florida Cancer Specialists. In the past three years, the majority of new cancer drugs approved for use in the U. Soriano, MD Vance M. Hometown Care. He asked Moore, with a slight laugh, what she was most proud of while serving on the Planning Commission. Moore said she was most proud of the new Comp Plan, which the commission took lead on during the revision process, earning not one but two state planning association awards for excellence and community involvement.

There are no new large tracts of land that are going to bring in affordable housing. There are places where the private sector can make it happen, if there is a will to.

Sarasota County did the same years ago for the City of Sarasota but has struggled under the pension debt it inherited. Throughout the election forums there was little in the way of negative campaigning. Moore later responded by saying, in essence, the assumption was absurd and that plenty of Realtors have served the city honorably, making it what it is today.

Email: ggiles venicegondolier. The audience responds to candidates at a recent election forum held at Waterford Sports Complex. Rick Scott asking for the reinstatement of a septic tank inspection program.

The City Council meets at 9 a. Tuesday, Oct. The agenda and backup materials are available at VeniceGov. Not only are they older, but they vote, Parrish added. Where did they move to? More than two-thirds of those transplants moved to the Gulf Coast in Manatee County, followed by Hillsborough County, and to a lesser degree Sumter, Marion and Duval counties. That has tremendous implications for future infrastructure like roads. Conversely, rural counties will see their populations continue to dwindle, straining their tax base and their resources.

Rural folks will also move to the more dense areas. Seventeen counties out of 67 lost population last year, Parrish said. Creating job incentive programs at the county level will be important. Other statistics: The current statewide unemployment rate is 3.

The Florida Scorecard estimated another , new jobs statewide will be needed by , going up to 1. Sarasota County will need another 9, jobs by it estimated. That rises to 25, jobs needed by The current population of Make sure to check out Dr. Cast-a-line let your FloridaSoul-Shine! Experience the exceptional lifestyle of HarborChase!

Prize is spread over a -month period. New residents only. One national winner. Restrictions may apply. Excludes skilled nursing. They will be, on Tuesday.

Its contract with the county was expiring and, while it agreed to stay on pending the negotiation of a new contract, it would be with the surcharge. The surcharge is due to decreased demand for the recyclable materials the city collects. Its fee is deducted from the proceeds and the remainder is paid to the city. The county recently received two bids for a new deal from other companies but it could take months to get a new contract in place.

If, as anticipated, it becomes the processing facility under a new contract, the city might need to revisit its collection practices. An option a number of cities have resorted to in the face of similar cost increases is discontinuing recycling. The rate study showed it would save about 98 cents a month, it says.

Get straightforward information about your BlueMedicare options. No interest will be charged on promo purchase and equal monthly pay ments are required equal to initial promo purchase amount divided equally by the number of months in promo period until promo is paid in full. The equal monthly payment will be rounded to the next highest whole dollar and may be higher than the mi nimum payment that would be required if the purchase was a non-promotional purchase.

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On Oct. Detectives collected the bag and cocaine mixture from the toilet, which in total, weighed more than 1, grams. Detectives launched their investigation into year-old Thomas Borchert after victims claimed he failed to complete work he promised to several Sarasota County residents, from Siesta Key down to North Port.

According to the victims, as early as Borchert agreed to renovate driveways and walkways but ignored the residents after payment, never purchased any products or started any work, and never refunded the homeowners.

The clients were women older than Following a lengthy investigation, detectives charged Borchert with scheme to defraud and two counts of grand theft. Charge: violation of probation. Charges: hold for Charlotte County for grand theft of a motor vehicle, dealing in stolen property and title fraud. Charge: DUI. Charge: possession of a weapon by a convicted felon.

Charge: hold for Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Bond: none. Charge: driving with a suspended license third or subsequent offense. Jessica Street, Nokomis. Charge: contempt of court failure to appear.

Charges: two counts of possession of methamphetamine and heroin, driving with a suspended license third or subsequent offense and possession of narcotic equipment. Charge: aggravated domestic battery. Charge: hit and run. Not every arrest leads to a conviction and guilt or innocence is determined by the court system. Plan your recovery, too! Tamiami Trail Venice, Florida www.

Call or stop by for details. We will match locally advertised pricing! Weekly Specials! HUGE Selection! Ice Cold Beer Cave! Tuesday is Seniors Day! Must present coupon. Not valid with any other offer or discount. Beautifully appointed great room design, S. Kotaska, Broker Assoc. Covered under building parking and some furniture included. Ideal vacation spot only a mile from downtown Venice. And income potential too. Call Jim now for more details or to schedule a showing.

Tamiami Tr. The Nov. The original plan also called for West Miami and West Tampa avenues to be done one lane at a time.

The presentation notes that West Tampa will probably also be done in segments. By way of further explaining why the project is running late, the presentation says the sequence of work is an issue. As many as seven steps precede laying the new road surface, from the installation of tree cells for landscaping to putting in pavers.

The work has to be done in the proper order, segment by segment, it says. In an effort to expedite work, it says, subcontractors will be rescheduled and advance work on the westbound lane of West Venice Avenue will actually begin Monday. Speakers include Dr. Randy Edwards, Ph. If time allows, they also plan to discuss a proposal on how to involve city homeowner associations by asking them to work with the EAB to develop an education program for new residents that promotes Florida Friendly Landscaping and water management practices.

The meeting, which begins at 1 p. It is open to the public and citizens are encouraged to attend. All hearing schedules are subject to change. Call Disaster help available for small businesses impacted by red tide Low-interest Economic Injury Disaster Loans from the United States Small Business Administration SBA are available to Florida small businesses, small agricultural cooperatives, small agricultural businesses impacted by the red tide algal bloom beginning Nov.

Rick Scott on Aug. The Business Recovery Center hours are 9 a. For more information, call the Sarasota County Contact Center at CAPRA provides the only national accreditation of parks and recreation agencies.

For more information call or visit scgov. V1Synergy One Lending Inc. Turner urges voters to return their ballots as soon as possible to avoid postal delays. More than 31, people have already done so. Visit the website to track your ballot. Early votingEarly voting runs from Monday, Oct. For more information about voting in Sarasota County, visit www. For additional information call This public hearing may be continued from time to time. Any person who decides to appeal any decision of the Venice Planning Commission with respect to any matter considered at this meeting will need a record of the proceedings and, for such purpose, may need to ensure that a verbatim record of the proceedings is made, which record includes the testimony and evidence upon which the appeal is to be based.

Box , Sarasota, FL The date of first publication of this Notice is October 20, Bar W. The date of first publication of this Notice is October 13, Jessica St. Extra Space Stor age may refuse any bid and may rescind any purchase up until the winning bidder takes possession of t he personal property.

Publish: Oct. Extra Space Storage may refuse any bid and may rescind any purchase up until the winning bidder takes possession of t he personal property. Advertise youryard sa l e! Venice and coach Brian Wheatley began the streak of district titles in , and the Indians added to that record Thursday night at the TeePee, making it 17 straight district titles as they swept Lakewood Ranch , , to win the 8A District tournament.

Who would have thought that when these seniors were in the hospital being born that this streak would start? A powerful kill from middle hitter Aja Jones 9 kills sent two Mustangs defenders diving to the ground, setting the tone early on for the Indians.

Once the Indians stretched their lead to double digits, they made quick work of the Mustangs. Spain Which Cheese was the traditional lunch of Welsh miners? Caerphilly - another name for Caerphilly is Eppynt In which country is the wine making area of Stellenbosch? South Africa In , Which pop group had a number one hit with the song 'Young ar heart'? The Bluebells What is the name of Donald Duck's girlfriend? Daisy Duck Which famous racehorse won the Cheltenham Gold Cup in ?

Desert Orchid In Greek mythology, who was the goddess of the rainbow? Iris Which novel by Umbert Eco told the story of a priest who was also a medieval detective? What is the name of the Paris Underground Railway system?

Metro What name is given to an eminent musical composer, teacher or conductor? Maestro Cavalier Which Constellation in the night sky is supposed to depict a hunter from Greek Mythology?

Orion In which TV series did Richard Chamberlain play the Captain of a ship that was wrecked on the shores of Japan during a storm? Big Friendly Giant Get Shorty In Michael J Fox provided the voice for which screen rodent? Which country has no armed forces and its capital city is Vaduz?

Liechstenstein Which sea lies to the north of Poland? Baltic Albert II became King of which country in ? Belgium Which county is also called Elleniki Dimokratia or the Hellenic Republic? Greece In which country is the Po the chief river? Which Disney animated film featured a hero called Flik? A Bug's Life Grasshopper Spider Nugent What was the name of the yacht in which Francis Chichester circumnavigated the globe?

Gypsy Moth Which sporting projectile weights between five and a half and five and three quarter ounces? Which glove puppet was the partner of the ventriloquist Shari Lewis? Lamb Chop What is the nickname of Bradford Football Club? The Bantams Bullseye What name is given to the small island at the southern tip of the Isle of Man? Calf of Man What name was given to the disastrous invasion of Cuba that forced John F Kennedy to issue a grovelling apology?

Which Bank calls itself 'The world's local bank'? HSBC 2. The Queen was given her first one in but it was recently revealed that she does want anymore. Corgis 3. Across Europe, European parliament seats were up for grabs. Germany has the most — 99 seats. Which country has the fewest?

Malta 4. To write in chalk the registration number of traffic offenders 5. What was Frank Whittle's most famous invention? Jet Engine 6. What has been named asperatus? A new cloud 7. Which biting insect is also known as a cleg? Horsefly 8. Leicester Tigers - 6th Premiership title in just 11 years 9. Much to the annoyance of a farmer, what has been found in an Oxfordshire field?

A ft jellyfish crop circle Igor Sikorsky created the first workable what? Helicopter A Touch Of Frost Robin Barr recently announced that he is to step down as boss of the company A. But of what is he one of only two people to know the secret recipe? Irn Bru Daniel Patrick Carroll died recently. He was better known under which name? Danny La Rue What means of transport was invented by Christopher Cockerell for which many gardeners are grateful?

Hovercraft - leading to the Flymo What invention came into common use in supermarkets in ? Bar Code Readers What foodstuff, eaten twice weekly, may help ward off dementia according to a new US study? A Curry When Tom Baker played Doctor Who what were his favourite sweets? Jelly Babies Shampoo What was the name of the blind Benedictine monk who invented Champagne? Dom Perignon What colour are the flowers of the gorse bush?

Yellow What title is given to the sovereign's representative in a county? Lord Lieutenant From which french region does Camembert cheese oringinally come. It was first made in the late 18th century? Normandy Fay Ripley Which American cosmetics company shares its name with an English river?

Avon Which country won the recent Eurovision Song Contest? Norway How is nitrous oxide better known? Laughing Gas Which is the largest academic institution in the UK in terms of student numbers? Open University What is the tasty-sounding popular name for the government's car scrappage scheme? Bangers For Cash Recently in the news, which country is sometimes referred to as The Teardrop Of India? Sri Lanka What colour flag is awarded to a recreational beach which has met stringent quality standards?

Blue In which country did David and Victoria Beckham get married in July ? Ireland Which tennis player holds the record for the fastest serve struck by a woman in a main event at miles per hour? Venus Williams Nigel Farage is the leader of which political party? UKIP Manchester City According to the Guinness Book Of Records in the late s which dancer danced at a record of 35 taps per second and was the highest paid dancer in the world? Michael Flatley Riverdance Leinster beat Leicester Tigers What colour are Superman's shorts?

Red What is the principal language of Denmark? Danish Tiebreaker - There wasn't exactly a stampede towards the ballot boxes last week. How many turned up in the first two hours at Streatham, south London? In a new speed limit was introduced in Britain; what was the maximum speed for cars? To the nearest how many people died in the sinking of the 'Titanic'? Which group of Atlantic Islands ended years of British colonial rule in ? The Bahamas. In two former British Prime Ministers died.

Name either? Mary Nutter died in ; for what had she become notorious in the 19th. She was allegedly a witch. Woodrow Wilson 7. According to figures which country had the largest Jewish population in the world? In Charlie Brooks became the first American murderer to be Executed by what method? Lethal Injection. What everyday bathroom appliance was invented by Jacob Schick in ? The Electric Razor. Which Prime Minister introduced Life Peerages ?

Harold Macmillan The worlds largest single span bridge was opened in Britain in ; What body of water does it cross? The Humber Estuary. The Big Bang. Kurt Waldheim Which 16th.

Century French Soldier was officially declared a saint by the Pope in ? What was Labour M. Helen Hayman the first woman to do in the house of Commons in ? Breast fed her baby. Which Australian Lady swimmer won m freestyle Gold at three successive Olympics? Dawn Fraser 3.

Jersey 4. Which Ballerina did Ludovic Kennedy marry in ? Moira Shearer 5. Sally Gunnell 6. Whose middle names were Wallis Warfield? The duchess of Windsor Mrs. Simpson 7. What is the Christian name of Muhammad Ali's daughter, who has recently fought her first 'Pro' boxing contest? Laila 8. Norfolk Sandringham 9.

Which Minister 'Presided' over wholesale closure of railway lines in the early 60's? Lord Beeching Name the Israeli Prime Minister who was shot dead in Yitzhak Rabin Who was caught in a compromising position with Divine Brown?

As I'm sure you've heard countless times before, you've struck just the right blend of different topics in your magazine. Every issue you manage to have one or two articles that blow me away, but it's the overall package that keeps me coming back. Please allow me to make one request. I would really like to see an article on backwoods softcore auteur Bethel Buckalew.

With Something Weird Video having recently released at least eight of his films for Harry Novak, perhaps I'm not the only one interested in this man's work. I understand he also worked behind the camera on many other Boxoffice International productions. If not, perhaps his wife Marlene or son Mark, both of whom worked with him, could be contacted.

I'm so excited by this guy's work that I'm just about ready to hunt him down and beg him for an interview. Anyway, please keep up the fantastic work! You've got a reader for life. Now, I have two suggestions for future articles and one recommendation. Suggestion number one: How about a profile article on Mike Vraney? I think it would make interesting reading to find out howhe went about starting up his video company, and how he was able to uncover those lost and forgotten sexploitation pictures he has found.

Editor's note: That's a good and reasonable request. Actually, we did a fairly lengthy interview with Mr. Vraney in Issue 6 of our magazine, where he explains these very subjects. Thought it's true, it may be time for another interview with him, since so much new material has been unearthed by Vraney in the past ten months. Suggestion number two: How about a piece on Cambist Filins.

Over the years I have found the output of Cambist to be audacious, bizarre, and quite erotic. In other words, a perfect subject for this magazine. Now for my recommendation. He's bright, knowledgeable and a hell of a good writer. I think Cult Movies is a splendid magazine and I wish you much success. Dear Friends, What a great line up of writers you have! You have absolutely the finest possible staff of film people writing for you.

I'd never seen anything by Dave Milner before, but his dedication to the Japanese cinema is just astounding. Dello Stritto. His research piece on the early Universal films was jaw- droppingly detailed and insightful. I remember his writings in the old Photon magazine, and am eagerly looking forward to every one of his Lugosi pieces you have planned for the future.

A regular review column, with Mr. Get him to do it if you can! Write to: Cult Movies Sunset Blvd. The whole thing hangs together just enough to lull you into feeling that you're watching a movie, just like any other movie. But this film is deceptively different.

Much different than any other viewing experience you've ever had. It's a spy thriller without a single peak experience you could justifiably mistake for a thrill. An adventure-mystery that poses no mystery and is devoid of any hint of adventure. As Johnny Legend sublimely states; "Adjectives have yet to be invented to describe the mind boggling none-ness that is somehow captured in Capture That Capsule.

You'll be mesm erized by the blandness, bu t you won't be bored! It's such proficiently shot and edited material that you will feel as though a regular film is being shown. But is it? I guess that's the only mystery you'll find in this indescribable assortment of sights and sounds.

The film meanders on and on and on. It just goes until 5 reels are all filled up, then it quits. It's in a vacuum all its own. Hope you, like the satellite, make it back to earth! Reviewed by Michael Copner. In this 16mm pro-Deep Throat adults only film there is a slight measure of explicit sex, and lots of talk about how pot will improve your sex life. John C. Beautiful ladies with big thighs and nice non-silicon breasts roll around atop young dudes while classical inspired music plays, in an ode to eros and pot induced sexual liberation.

Welcome to Every fan of exploitation will enjoy this example of adult fare in its transition period, not yet porno as we know it, but certainly no innocent nudie- cutie.

Worth a look-see. The color cinematography, the musical score, the eerie and disorienting mood all came together in what is arguably one of the most successful bargain basement thrillers ever produced. Send S For this is the True Vue Motel, where the rooms are occupied by hot pantied young ladies eager for a little physical release. The Walls Have Eyes is another regional adult film that will have you wondering how it ever got made. Shot silent with narration and dubbed dialogue added, it contains a relaxed, late- night jazz accompaniment provided by somebody's eclectic collection of record albums.

Right in the midst of one spicy scene, up onto the soundtrack comes a cool rock version of The Munsters theme! Far out. This print the only one ever made???

Available from Something Weird Video. The box cover says this was previously unreleased. I swear we played it at the dirty movie I used to work at Terry Gilliamesque titles set the whole tone.

They both workoff their tensions weekends at the Sunshine Nudist Camp. At the research lab the doctors concoct some kind of hormone or chemical that drives mammals crazy. It gets into the lab animal feed by accident and, in one of the most deliberately funny sequences in the scries, the lab rats attack our poor nurse. She gets to scream and fend off rodents flung at her by the camera crew. She's rescued, love blooms, and the formula gets pitched into the Hudson Bay.

However, our filmmakers have an eco-message to pitch as well. Yes, environmental issues raged in the prehistoric '60s, too. The beaker with the formula takes a long route and ends up feeding into the stream that flows through Camp Sunshine. Meanwhile, the model goes on a shoot at the camp with her agency crew. She also is accompanied by nursie who will be joined there later by Or. Hugo busts loose and various naked persons are threatened, though not very seriously.

The last 15 minutes of the film are nutzoid. The score comes from the same library that Andy Milligan used for his opuses. The film is very funny, peppered with zany title cards and trancer narration. All the women wear the most hideous wigs in cinema history.

Monster Of Camp Sunshine is wonderfully wacky and inventive. Although Jackie Gleason claimed it was his favorite of all the films he appeared in, Gigot has been largely unseen since the mids. Gleason wrote the scenario and played the title role of Gigot, a deaf mute janitor in Paris. Jackie's pal Gene Kelly directed. Jackie always claimed to have written the musical score for the film.

A bittersweet comedy after the fashion of Chaplin or Langdon, the film has been called a sentimental tribute to silent screen humor. Whether one loves the film or not, it was certainly a "ham actor's dream" for Jackie Gleason, and an accomplishment for which he was proud to the end. Gigot deserves to be seen by today's audiences, and we thank Network for making that possible. Therefore, I've always doubted the thesis that Universal bought the screen rights to Dracula "for Lon Chaney.

His voice s are as astounding and engaging as his character make-ups had always been. That the second filming of Unholy'Three turned out to be Lon's final film is another poetic Hollywood ending. The later film is at times a shot for shot re-make of the first version, up until the last reel where the story takes a startling departure from the silent rendition.

Obviously both films need to be seen by fans of Chaney and of early cinema. See ad for Network Enterprises in this issue. But Ozone is tremendous. I hope it's not an exception to the rule.

Book waiter almost from the start. It's an action and suspense filled tale that's loose enough and risky enough to be independent, but slick enough to have the feel of a big studio production. It's not easy working constantly with strangers in each new family, conveying your ideas and getting the results you'veenvisioned, and having it all come out in a satisfactory way on the screen. Some directors have made over 40 films in this way and still fail to make it happen.

Bookwalter has made the magic happen in Ozone, and thereby earns our highest commendation. The Ozone in question here is a drug that does more than transform your consciousness. Given enough of the Ozone, you will radically transform into something entirely other. Never to return! Within four weeks of it release.

Ozone has succeeded in topping the sales records set by Dead Next Door and has been receiving critical acclaim of its own. It's absolutely worth a look. Beatty and James L. Music by Jens Moller. Produced, photographed, and directed by J. If Karloff and Lugosi's career trajectories had been reversed, Bela might have looked at this and said, "Poor Boris" - it's that bad. Both films were adapted from the same Adam Hull Shirk play, and the working title of the earlier films was The Ape.

If you revere Karloff, that's all the more reason to avoid this. Available from Sinister Cinema. Producer: Jaime Prades. Photography: Godofredo Pacheco. To this end he inhabits a human body, sets up his lab in a castle, and goes about collecting his supernatural specimens. Can this be serious?!

Thecast and direction tries to make us think so. And there are no laughs or even a hint of humor in Paul Naschy's script he writes under his real name of Jacinto Molina and acts under the name Paul Naschy; here he plays his recurring role of Waldimar Daninski, the Werewolf.

With a plot like this, the only hope for the viewer is to get a little bit of boffo f un out of the bizarre proceedings. No chance. This "mod" feel doesn't gel too well with the castle dungeons, torture chambers, cobwebs, and general attempt to build a Gothic atmosphere around the classic monsters. The monsters themselves aren't much to look at either. Waldimar the Werewolf Naschy in his third lycanthropic outing is ok. The Living Mummy, however, from the way his head is bandaged, looks more like a man with a splitting headache than a year-old undying monster.

The Frankenstein Monster here referred to as the "Franksillian Monster" - perhaps the filmmakers were worried about copyright problems is an ersatz copy of the Universal creation.

One bright spot appears near the end to reward our patience, however, when we are treated to the novel sight of a Werewolf battling a Mummy - a first in monster history. Sadly, this ground-breaking encounter only ends in dour disappointment when the Werewolf goes against his lupine nature and intentionally sets the Mummy ablaze with a torch;every monster-loving child knows that no self-respecting Werewolf would go near an open flame while in wolf form!

Oh well, the good guys triumph and all is well in the end. The scariest part of this imported stinker is the fact that this was Michael Rennie's last genre film. Poor Michael, lets give one last "Klaatu Barada Nikto" before we bring the curtain down. Anthony Dawson Antonio Margheriti. Screenplay: Vassily Petrov. Photography: Marcello Masciocchi. This early Italian sci-fi entry seems to be one of the more serious attempts to portray space travel in a realistic way.

Unfortunately, the budget, script, and special effects aren't up to this lofty goal. The events take place entirely in space or on space stations. This dosed-in, no-room- to-breathe atmosphere makes a sharp and jarring contrast to the vast emptiness of space. More often than not, however, the effect is ruined by obvious- looking models and shoddy effects.

Though the films is in color, fairly rare in a low-budget feature of this time , it is not used to advantage. Instead of the bright, stunning visual atmosphere often found in other Italian SF Mario Bava's Planet Of The Vampires being a superb example , this film opts forsilvers and grays as the predominant color scheme, making it much less interesting visually. The rather convoluted plot concerns a reporter risking his life to stop a runaway shi p abou t to destroy the Earth.

The dubbed d ialogue is stilted and reaches absurd heights in melodrama. Lines such as, "The world of human feelings has been much less explored than the whole universe," leads one to believe or at least hope that something was lost in translation. Credit should be given for efforts in realism though, for at least the astronauts in this movie have to contend realistically with the lack of gravity in space refreshing, since most other SF films cavalierly gloss over this serious bit of astrophysics.

Antonio Perez Olea. The plot is convoluted, with lots of extraneous filler to confuse and annoy. The acting is stilted and poor. The ending is actually quite effective as well, almost making sitting through the previous 70 minutes of tedium worthwhile He also shoots an adolescent girl who's been enslaved by Carmilla. In other words, it's no honeymoon. Smith owns a boat, but not a gun or car, resulting in the first P. Hired by the confederate of mob boss Big Mac Bernard Fein to find a dame named Carrie Erskine Carolyn Brandt , Smith gets his fair share of beatings as he wades through a bizarre underbelly of smiley thugs, degenerates and drug addicts in a decidedly unsunny Los Angeles, what Charlie doesn't know is that Brandt is a slinky cat burglar in possession of a bag of stolen drugs.

Greg has inked a deal todistribute Steckler's entire film library through Sinister. Body Fever is certainly a detour from the predictable private detective formula and a change of pace for Steckler. While producers of A-level crime movies spend considerable sums to effect a nasty, seedy look. Body Fever achieves that goal effortlessly, by dint of necessity. Parker Adrian Hoven. Producer Pier A. Screenwriters: Percy G.

Parker, Eric Martin Schnitzler. But there is also love. Love creates life; love has a right to kill. But he who kills for revenge will be cursed- a bit of home- spun philosophy from I loward Vernon as Count von Saxon. The story concerns a small group of hedonistic party-goers, headed by a brutal Baron Michael Lemoine , who stumbles into the castle of the reclusive Count von Saxon Howard Vernon; Dr. Orloff himself from The Awful Dr. In even the most perfect reproduction, one thing is lacking: the here and now of the work of art-its unique existence in a particular place.

It is this unique existence-and nothing else-that bears the mark of the history to which the work has been subject. This history includes changes to the physical structure of the work over time, together with any changes in ownership. Traces of the former can be detected only by chemical or physical analyses which cannot be performed on a reproduction , while changes of ownership are part of a tradition which can be traced only from the standpoint of the original in its present location.

The here and now of the original underlies the concept of its authenticity, and on the latter in turn is founded the idea of a tradition which has passed object down as the same, identical thing to the present day. The whole sphere of authenticity eludes technological-and of course tIot only technological-rel roduction.

But whereas the authentic work retains its full authority in the face of a reproduction made by hand, which it brands a forgery, this is not the case with technological reproduction. The reason is twofold. First, technological reproduction is more independent of the original than is manual reproduction.

For example, in photography it can bring out aspects of the original that are accessible only to the lens which is adjustable and can easily change viewpoint but not to the human eye; or it can use certain processes, such as enlargement or slow motion, to record images which escape natural optics altogether.

This is the first reason. Second, technological reproduction can place the copy of the original in situations which the original itself cannot attain. The cathedral leaves its site to be received in the studio of an art lover; the choral work performed in an auditorium or in the open air is enjoyed in a private room.

These changed circumstances may leave the artwork's other properties untouched, but they certainly devalue the here and now of the artwork. And although this can apply not only to art but say to a landscape moving past the spectator in a film.

That core is its authenticity. The authenticity of a thing is the quintessence of all that is transmissible in it from its origin on, ranging from its physical duration to the historical testimony relating to it. Since the historical testimony is founded on the physical duration, the former, too, is jeopardized by reproduction, in which the physical duration plays no part. And what is really jeopardized when the historical testimony is affected is the authority of the object, the weight it derives from tradition.

One might focus these aspects of the artwork in the concept of the aura, and go on to say: what withers in the age of the technological reproducibility of the work of art is the latter's aura. This process is symptomatic; its significance extends far beyond the realm of art. It might be stated as a general formula that the technology of reproduction detaches the reproduced object from the sphere of tradition.

By replicating the work many times over, it substitutes a mass existence for a unique existence. And in lJermitting the reproduction to reach the recipient in his or her own situation, it actualizes that which is reproduced. These two processes lead to a massive upheaval in the domain of objects handed down fro the past-a shattering of tradition which is the reverse side of the present crisis and renewal of humanity.

Both processes are intimately related to the mass movements of our day. Their most powerful agent is film. The social significance of film, even-and especially-in its most positive form, is inconceivable without its destructive, cathartic side: the liquidation of the value of tradition in the cultural heritage. This phenomenon is most apparent in the great historical films. It is assimilating ever more advanced positions in its spread.

All legends, all mythologies, and all myths, all the founders of religions, indeed, all religions, IV Just as the entire mode of existence of human collectives changes over long historical periods, so too does their mode of perception. The way in which human perception is organized-the medium in which it occursis conditioned not only by nature but by history.

The era of the migration of peoples, an era which saw the rise of the late-Roman art industry and the Vienna Genesis, developed not only an art different from that of antiquity but also a different perception. The scholars of the Viennese school Riegl and Wickhoff, resisting the weight of the classical tradition beneath which this art had been buried, were the first to think of using such art to draw conclusions about the organization of perception at the time the art was produced.

They did not attempt to show the social upheavals manifested in these changes in perception-and perhaps could not have hoped to do so at that time.

Today, the conditions for an analogolls insight are more favorable. And if changes in the medium of present-day perception can be understood as a decay of the aura, it is possible to demonstrate the social determinants of that decay.

What, then, is the aura? In the light of this description, we can readily grasp the social basis of the aura's present decay. It rests on two circumstances, both linked to the increasing emergence of the masses and the growing intensity of their movements. Namely: the desire of the present-day masses to "get closer" to things, and their equally passionate concern for overcoming each thing's uniqueness [Oberwindung des Einmaligen jeder Gegebenheit] by assimilating it as a reproduction.

Every day the urge grows stronger to get hold of an object at close range in an image [Bild], or, better, in a facsimile [Abbild], a reproduction. And the reproduction [Reprodul? Uniqueness and permanence are as closely entwined in the latter as are transitoriness and repeatability in the former. The stripping of the veil from the object, the destruction of the aura, is the signature of a perception whose "sense for all.

Thus is manifested in the field of perception what in the theoretical sphere is noticeable in the increasing significance statistics. The alignment of reality with the masses and of the masses with reality is a process of immeasurable importance for both thinking perception. Of course, this tradition itself is thoroughly alive and extremely changeable.

An ancient statue of Venus, for instance, existed in a traditional context for the Greeks who made it an object of worship that was different from the context in which it existed for medieval clerics who viewed it as a sinister idol.

But what was equally evident to both was its uniqueness-that is, its aura. Originally, the embeddedness of an artwork in the context of tradition found expression in a cult.

As we know, the earliest artworks originated in the service of rituals-first magical, then religious. And it is highly significant that the artwork's auratic mode of existence is never entirely severed from its ritual function. In other words: the unique value of the "authentic" work of art alwa' ls has its basis in ritual. This ritualistic basis, however mediated it may be, is still recognizable as secularized ritual in even the most proforms of the cult of beauty.

The secular worship of beauty, which developed during the Renaissance and prevailed for three centuries, clearly displayed that ritualistic basis in its subsequent decline and in the first severe crisis which befell it. In poetry, Mallarme was the first to adopt this standpoint. No investigation of the work of art in the age of its technological reproducibility can overlook these connections. They lead to a insight: for time in world history, technological reproducibility work of art from its parasitic subservience to ritual.

To an degree, the work reproduced becomes the reproduction of a work designed for reproducibility. But as soon as the criterion of authenticity ceases to be applied to artistic production, the whole social function of art is revolutionized.

Instead of being founded on ritual, it is based on a different practice: politics. VI Art history might be seen as the working out of a tension between two polarities within the artwork itself, its course determined by sllifts in the balance between the two.

These two are the artwork's cult value and its exhibition value. What is important is that they are present, not that they are seen. The elk depicted by Stone Age man on the walls of his cave is an instrument of magic, and is exhibited to others only coincidentally; what matters is that the see it. Cult value as such even tends to keep the artwork out of certain statues of gods are accessible only to the priest in the cella; certain images of the Madonna remain covered nearly all year round; certain sculptures on medieval cathedrals are not visible to the viewer at ground level.

It is easier to exhibit a portrait bust that can be sent here and there than to exhibit the statue of a divinity that has a fixed place in the interior a temple. A panel painting can be exhibited more easily than the mosaic or fresco which preceded it. And although a mass may have been no less suited to public presentation than a symphony, the symphony came into being at a time when the possibility of such presentation promised to be greater.

The scope for exhibiting the work of art has increased so enormously with the various methods of technologically reproducing it that, as happened in prehistoric times, a quantitative shift between the two poles of the artwork has led to a qualitative transformation in its nature.

Just as the work of art in prehistoric times, through the exclusive emphasis placed on its cult value, became first and foremost an instrument of which only later came to be recognized as a work of art, so today, through the exclusive emphasis placed on its exhibition value, the work of art becomes a construct lGebilde] with quite new functions. Among these, the one we are conscious of-the artistic function-may subsequently seen as incidental. This much is certain: today, film is the most vehicle of this new understanding.

Certain, as well, is the fact. Prehistoric art made use of certain fixed notations in the service of magical practice. In some cases, these notations probably comprised the actual performing of magical acts the carving of an ancestral IS Itself such an act ; in others, they gave instructions for such procedures the figure demonstrates a ritual posture ; and in stiH others, they provided objects for magical contemplation contemplation of an ancestral figure strengthens the occult powers of the beholder.

The subjects for these notations were humans and their environment, which were depicted according to the requirements of a society whose technology existed only in fusion with ritual. Compared to that of the machine age, of course, this technology was undeveloped.

But from a dialectical standpoint, the disparity is unimportant. What matters is the way the orientation and aims of that technology differ from those of ours. Whereas the former made the maximum possible use of human beings, the latter reduces their use to the minimum.

The achievements of the first technology might be said to culminate in human sacrifice; those of the second, in the remote-controlled aircraft which needs no human crew. The of the first technology are valid once and for all it deals with irreparable lapse or sacrificial death, which holds good for The results of the second are wholly provisional it operates by means of experiments and endlessly varied test procedures , The origin the second technology lies at the point where, by an unconscious ruse, human beings first began to distance themselves from nature.

It lies, in other words, in play. Seriousness and play, rigor and license, are mingled in every work of art, though in very different proportions. This implies that art is linked to both the second and the first technologies.

It should be noted, however, that to describe the goal of the second technology as "mastery over nature" is highly questionable, since this implies viewing the second technology from the standpoint of the first. The first technology really sought to master nature, whereas the second aims rather at an interplay between nature and humanity.

The primary social function of art today is to rehearse that interplay. This applies especially to film. The function of film is to tfain human beings in the alJpercelJtions and reactions needed to deal with a vast alJparatus whose role in their lives is expanding almost daily. Dealing with apparatus also teaches them that technology will release them from their enslavement to the powers of the apparatus only. But cult value does not give way without resistance.

It falls back to a last entrenchment: the human countenance. It is no accident that the portrait is central to early photography. In the cult of remembrance of dead or absent loved ones, the cult value of the image finds its last refuge. In the fleeting expression of a human face, the aura beckons from early photographs for the last time. This is what gives them their melancholy and incomparable beauty. But as the human being withdraws from the photographic image, exhibition value for the first time shows its superiority to cult value.

To have this development its local habitation constitutes the unique significance of Atget, who, around , took photographs of deserted Paris streets.! A crime scene, too, is deserted; it is photographed for the purpose of establishing evidence. With Atget, photographic records begin to be evidence in the historical trial [Prozess]. This constitutes their hidden political significance. They demand a specific kind of reception.

Free-floating contemplation is no longer appropriate to them. They unsettle the viewer; he feels challenged to find a particular way to approach them. At the same time, illustrated magazines begin to put up signposts for him-whether these are right or wrong is irrelevant.

For the first time, captions become obligatory. And it is clear that they have a character altogether different from the titles of paintings. The directives given by captions to those looking at images in illustrated magazines soon become even more precise and commanding in films, where the way each single image is understood seems prescribed by the sequence of all the preceding images. Bronzes, terra cottas, and coins were the only artworks they could produce in large numbers.

All others were unique could not be technologically reproduced. That is why they had to be made for all eternity. The state of their technology compelled the Greeks to tJroduce eternal values in their art.

To this they owe their preeminent. Undoubtedly, Ollr position lies at the opposite pole from that of the Greeks. Never before have artworks been technologically reproducible to such a degree and in sllch quantities as today. Film is the first art form whose artistic character is entirely determined by its reproducibility. It would be idle to compare this form in detail with Greek art. But on one precise point such a comparison would be revealing.

For film has given crucial importance to a quality of the artwork which would have been the last to find approval among the Greeks, or which they would have dismissed as marginal. This quality is its capacity for improvement. The finished film is the exact antithesis of a work created at a single stroke. Under the Tudors, commerce was expanded, English seamen ranged far and wide, and clashes with Spain accelerated by religious differences intensified.

Earlier English dominance had not had much effect on Wales, but the Tudors followed a policy of assimilation, anglicizing Welsh laws and practices. After his death , the succession to the throne became a major issue during the reigns of Edward VI — 53 , Mary I — 58 , and Elizabeth I — In Scotland, James I r. His murder in began a century of civil conflict. James IV r. French influence in Scotland grew under James V r.

After James's death, Mary ruled as regent for her daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had married the dauphin of France, where she lived as dauphiness and later as queen. By the time Mary returned to Scotland , after the death of her husband, most of the Scots were Protestants. A pro-English faction had the support of Queen Elizabeth I against the pro-French faction, and Mary, who claimed the throne of England, was imprisoned and executed by Elizabeth. Under Elizabeth, England in acquired its first colony, Newfoundland, and in defeated the Spanish Armada ; it also experienced the beginning of a golden age of drama, literature, and music, among whose towering achievements are the plays of William Shakespeare.

Under James and his son, Charles I r. In the English Civil War , which broke out in , Charles was supported by the Welsh, who had remained overwhelmingly Catholic in feeling, but most Scots opposed him. Charles was tried and executed in , and Oliver Cromwell as Protector ruled the new Commonwealth until his death in Cromwell ruthlessly crushed uprisings in Ireland and suppressed the Welsh.

In , Charles II, eldest son of the executed king, regained the throne. The Restoration was marked by a reaction against Puritanism, by persecution of the Scottish Covenanters Presbyterians , by increased prosperity, and by intensified political activity; during this period, Parliament managed to maintain many of its gains. By this transfer of power, known to English history as the Glorious Revolution , the final supremacy of Parliament was established.

Supporters of James II Jacobites in Scotland and Ireland, aided by France, sought to restore the deposed Stuart line, but their insurrection was suppressed in at the Battle of the Boyne , fought on the banks of the Irish river of that name.

In Wales, after Cromwell and the Commonwealth, the people began to turn to Calvinism; dissent grew, and such ministers as Griffith Jones, a pioneer in popular education, became national leaders.

Most Welsh were won to the Calvinistic Methodist Church , which played a large part in fostering a nonpolitical Welsh nationalism. A long struggle to disestablish the Church of England in Wales culminated successfully in a act of Parliament. English colonial expansion developed further in the 17th and 18th centuries, in competition with France and the Netherlands, while at the same time the English merchant marine gained commercial supremacy over the Dutch.

The wars of the Grand Alliance — 97 and of the Spanish Succession — 14 consolidated Britain's overseas possessions. At home, to ensure Scottish allegiance to England and prevent possible alliances with inimical countries, the Act of Union of Scotland and England was voted by the two parliaments in , thereby formally creating the kingdom of Great Britain under one crown and with a single Parliament composed of representatives of both countries.

Scottish affairs eventually became the province of the secretary of state for Scotland, a member of the British cabinet. Nevertheless, a nationalist movement demanding independence for Scotland persists to this day. The accession of George I of the House of Hanover in a great-grandson of James I saw the beginning of the modern cabinet system, with the king leaving much of the governing to his ministers. The 18th century was a time of rapid colonial and mercantile expansion abroad and internal stability and literary and artistic achievement at home.

Britain won control of North America and India in the Seven Years' War ended in by the Treaty of Paris , which also established British supremacy over the seas; however, the American Revolution — 83 cost Britain its most important group of colonies.

A few years later, British settlement of Australia and then of New Zealand became key elements in the spreading British Empire. Britain increased its power further by its leading role in the French Revolutionary Wars and in the defeat of Napoleon and French expansionist aims.

The conquest of Ireland had never been consolidated; the Act of Union followed an Irish rebellion in after the failure of a demand for parliamentary reform. But although the act established Irish representation in Parliament, the Irish question continued to cause trouble throughout the 19th century. Absentee landlordism, particularly in the 26 southern counties, fostered poverty and hatred of the English.

Moreover, there was a growing division of interest between these counties and the six counties of the north, popularly called Ulster, where, early in the 17th century, Protestant Scots and English had settled on land confiscated by the British crown after a rebellion.

While the north gradually became Protestant and industrial, the rest of Ireland remained Catholic and rural.

With the introduction of the first Home Rule Bill in , the northern Irish, fearing domination by the southern Catholic majority, began a campaign that ended in the Government of Ireland Act, which established separate domestic legislatures for the north and south, as well as continued representation in the UK Parliament. The six northern counties accepted the act and became Northern Ireland.

The Industrial Revolution , beginning in the second half of the 18th century, provided the economic underpinning for British colonial and military expansion throughout the s. However, the growth of the factory system and of urbanization also brought grave new social problems.

The enclosure of grazing land in the Scottish highlands and the industrialization of southern Wales were accompanied by extensive population shifts and led to largescale emigration to the United States, Canada, and Australia. Reform legislation came slowly, although the spirit of reform and social justice was in the air. Slavery was abolished throughout the British Empire in The great Reform Acts of , , and enfranchised the new middle class and the working class.

Factory acts, poor laws, and other humanitarian legislation did away with some of the worst abuses, and pressure mounted for eliminating others. The long reign of Queen Victoria — saw an unprecedented commercial and industrial prosperity. This was a period of great imperial expansion, especially in Africa, where at the end of the century Britain fought settlers of predominantly Dutch origin in the South African or Boer War.

Toward the end of the century, also, the labor movement grew strong, education was developed along national lines, and a regular civil service was finally established. The vast economic and human losses of World War I , in which nearly , Britons were killed, brought on serious disturbances in the United Kingdom as elsewhere, and the economic depression of the s resulted in the unemployment of millions of workers. In , the Statute of Westminster granted the status of equality to the self-governing British dominions and created the concept of a British Commonwealth of Nations.

During the late s, the government of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sought to avoid war by appeasing Nazi Germany, but after Hitler invaded Poland, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 3 September Prime Minister Winston Churchill led the United Kingdom during World War II in a full mobilization of the population in the armed services, in home defense, and in war production.

Although victorious, the United Kingdom suffered much destruction from massive German air attacks, and the military and civilian death toll exceeded , At war's end, a Labour government was elected; it pledged to carry out a full program of social welfare "from the cradle to the grave," coupled with the nationalization of industry.

Medicine was socialized, other social services were expanded, and several industries were put under public ownership. Complete nationalization of industry, however, was halted with the return to power of the Conservatives in During Labour's subsequent terms in office, from to and from to , little further nationalization was attempted.

To a large extent, the United Kingdom's postwar history can be characterized as a prolonged effort to put the faltering economy on its feet and to cope with the economic, social, and political consequences of the disbandment of its empire. By early , all that remained of what had been the largest empire in the world were 14 dependencies, many of them small islands with tiny populations and few economic resources.

After a Labour government replaced the Conservatives in March , the membership terms were renegotiated, and United Kingdom voters approved continued British participation by a The principal domestic problems in the s were rapid inflation, labor disputes, and the protracted conflict in Northern Ireland.

Long-smoldering tensions between Protestants and Catholics erupted into open warfare after civil rights protests in by Catholics claiming discrimination and insufficient representation in the government.

British troops, first dispatched to Belfast and Londonderry in August , have remained there since. On 30 March , Northern Ireland's parliament Stormont was prorogued, and direct rule was imposed from London. Numerous attempts to devise a new constitution failed, as did other proposals for power sharing.

In , legislation establishing a new member Northern Ireland Assembly was enacted. Elections were held that October, but the 19 Catholic members chosen refused to claim their seats.

Meanwhile, the violence continued, one of the victims being the British war hero Earl Mountbatten of Burma, who was murdered while vacationing in Ireland on 27 August In October , IRA members imprisoned in Ulster began a series of hunger strikes; by the time the strikes ended the following October 10 men had died.

In November , the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic signed an agreement committing both governments to recognition of Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom and to cooperation between the two governments by establishing an intergovernmental conference concerned with Northern Ireland and with relations between the two parts of Ireland. Tony Blair, who became prime minister in May , also invested in normalization of relations between Ireland and the United Kingdom and in a longterm solution to the sectarian strife in Northern Ireland.

In , Ireland and the United Kingdom signed a peace agreement Good Friday agreement in which Ireland pledged to amend Articles 2 and 3 of the Irish constitution, which lay claim to the territory in the North. In , a Conservative government, headed by Margaret Thatcher, came to power with a program of income tax cuts and reduced government spending.

Thatcher, who won reelection in and , embarked on a policy of "privatizing" — selling to the private sector — many of the UK's nationalized businesses. In foreign policy, the government's most dramatic action was sending a naval task force to the Falkland Islands following Argentina's occupation of the islands on 2 April After intense fighting, British administration was restored to the Falklands on 14 June.

Thatcher's leadership was challenged by Conservative MPs in November , and she failed to win the necessary absolute majority. Thatcher withdrew and was replaced by John Major.

The Conservatives were returned to power in April with a reduced majority. Major's government sought to redefine Conservative values with a renewed emphasis on law and order. Labour Party leader Tony Blair was elected prime minister on 2 May , ending 18 years of Conservative Party rule and signaling a major shift in British domestic policy he was reelected in and Blair, who moved his party to the center of the political spectrum during the campaign, pledged initiatives to modernize Britain's political structures.

To that effect, he organized the creation of regional assemblies for Scotland and Wales and a municipal government for London. The regional parliaments were ratified by a referendum in late and began their first session in The city council for greater London came into being in mid and London's first mayor in 15 years was Ken Livingstone reelected , a left-wing Labourite not much liked by the middle-of-the-road Blairites. As promised, Blair's government also restructured the House of Lords to do away with the large number of hereditary peers.

Only 75 of the hereditary peers now sit in the House of Lords alongside life peers, several senior judges, 26 bishops of the Church of England, and 15 deputy speakers.

The Blair government has also spent much time in tackling the Northern Ireland problem. The power-sharing government came into being in December , but was suspended 11 weeks later because the IRA refused to make any disarmament commitments.

A breakthrough occurred in May when the IRA agreed to allow leading international figures to inspect arms dumps and to begin the process of complete and verifiable disarmament. The Protestant party voted to revive the power-sharing arrangements on 27 May and the UK government promised to restore substantial authority to the new Northern Irish cabinet this was accomplished on 29 May.

However, decommissioning of the IRA did not progress in early On 14 October, devolution was suspended due to the spying allegations and direct rule from London was reimposed on Northern Ireland. Blair announced in May elections for the National Assembly would be postponed, due to the lack of evidence of peaceful intentions on behalf of the IRA. The statement was received with skepticism by the DUP.

Prime Minister Blair offered strong support for the US-led war on terrorism begun after the 11 September attacks on the United States; British forces took part in the campaign in Afghanistan to oust the Taliban regime. The United Kingdom in — 03 also stood with the United States in its diplomatic and military efforts to force Saddam Hussein 's regime in Iraq to disarm itself of any weapons of mass destruction it might possess.

The war in Iraq began on 19 March British forces fought side-by-side with US forces, especially in southern Iraq. In the aftermath of the war, Blair indicated a central role must be played by the UN in the reconstruction of Iraq; in this he stood with other European leaders.

British intelligence withdrew a controversial claim that Saddam Hussein could have used WMD with 45 minutes' notice. Blair acknowledged that the intelligence had been flawed, but denied having misrepresented it in making the case for war. Another controversy related to the Iraq War was the publication by The London Times on 1 May of a memo subsequently labeled the " Downing Street memo" containing an overview of a secret 23 July meeting among British intelligence, government, and defense leaders discussing the build-up to the Iraq War.

The memo included direct reference to classified US policy of the time and indicated that "intelligence and facts were being fixed" around the policy of removing Saddam Hussein from power.

This was taken to show that US intelligence prior to the war had been deliberately falsified, and not just mistaken. The memo suggested that the UN weapons inspections that began after 8 November were manipulated to provide a legal pretext for the war, and that the removal by force of the Iraq regime had been planned prior to the date of the secret British meeting.

In the United States, demands for an explanation of the revelations contained in the memo and calls for a formal Congressional inquiry were ignored by the Bush administration. In mid the United Kingdom was wracked by terrorist violence.

On 7 July four suicide bombers struck London's transit system, killing 52 people and injuring more than Three underground trains were bombed, as was one double-decker bus. Two weeks later, on 21 July, bombings of three underground trains and one bus were attempted, but the suicide bombers' bombs failed to fully detonate.

On 22 July, a Brazilian man, Jean Charles de Menezes, was shot to death at the Stockwell underground station by British police who believed him to be implicated in the bombing attempts. He was found not to have played any role in the 21 July attacks.

The United Kingdom remains one of three European Union EU members not adopting European economic and monetary union and embracing the euro as its currency. The other two nations are Denmark and Sweden.

The United Kingdom is a monarchy in form but a parliamentary democracy in substance. The sovereign — Elizabeth II since — is head of state and as such is head of the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and temporal head of the established Church of England. In practice, however, gradually evolving restrictions have transmuted the sovereign's legal powers into instruments for affecting the popular will as expressed through Parliament.

In the British formulation, the sovereign reigns but does not rule, for the sovereign is under the law and not above it, ruling only by approval of Parliament and acting only on the advice of her ministers.

The United Kingdom is governed, in the name of the sovereign, by Her Majesty's Government — a body of ministers who are the leading members of whichever political party the electorate has voted into office and who are responsible to Parliament. Parliament itself, the supreme legislative authority in the realm, consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.

Northern Ireland had its own parliament Stormont subordinate to Westminster; however, because of civil strife in Ulster, the Stormont was prorogued on 30 March , and direct rule was imposed from Westminster. After several abortive attempts over the next decade to devise a system of home-rule government acceptable to both Protestant and Catholic leaders, the member Northern Ireland Assembly was established in , but it was dissolved in As a result of the "Good Friday Agreement," a Catholic-Protestant power-sharing government came into being in It was suspended in October , and direct rule from London returned.

Regional parliaments for Scotland and Wales were ratified by referendum in , however, and they began their first sessions in The sovereign formally summons and dissolves Parliament.

The House of Lords, whose size has been greatly reduced, used to count about 1, peers, including hereditary peers, spiritual peers archbishops and bishops of the Church of England , and life peers eminent persons unwilling to accept a hereditary peerage.

Over the centuries, its powers have gradually been reduced; today, its main function is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of lawmaking. As of , the House of Commons had members. A general election must be held every five years but is often held sooner. All British subjects 18 years old and over may vote in national elections; women won equal franchise with men in Citizens of Ireland resident in Britain may also vote, as may British subjects abroad for a period of five years after leaving the United Kingdom.

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